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First Governor=QeneraI of India 



Fellow of the University of Madras, etc. 
With 3 Photogravure Portraits and 78 Illustrations and Facsimiles 


Butler & Tanner, 
Selwood Printing Wor 
Frome, and London. 


During the century which has now passed since Warren 
Hastings was acquitted of the charges brought against him by 
the House of Commons, posterity has endorsed the remark of 
the Prince Regent to the Allied Sovereigns, that he was " one 
of the most deserving, and, at the same time, one of the worst 
used men in the Empire." Shortly after the conclusion of his 
trial he disappeared from public view, yet his name has a 
greater attraction for modern students of Indian history than 
has that of any one of his twenty eminent successors in the 
office of Governor-General. He made a successful appeal for 
national sympathy when he exclaimed to his accusers : " I 
gave you all, and you have rewarded me with confiscation, 
disgrace, and a life of impeachment ! " His end was peace ; 
but he went to his grave conscious that full reparation had 
not been made for the grievous wrongs inflicted upon him. 
Posterity shares that feeling, and regrets that " one of the 
greatest men that England ever produced " was the victim of 
implacable prejudice. Of late years his public life has been 
scrutinised anew, and without bias, by many writers who have 
done honour to his memory ; but his private life has not, 
perhaps, engaged as much attention as it deserves ; and I have 
been encouraged to give in the present volume the chief 
contents of a paper that I contributed in July, 1892, to the 
Journal of Indian Art and Industry, together with additional 
information which I have gleaned since that date from his 
kinsfolk, from his private papers in the British Museum, and 
from other sources. 



My grateful acknowledgments are due to Miss Marian 
Winter, of Worton House, Steeple Aston, Oxfordshire, for per- 
mitting me to see Hastings' private diary, and for affording me 
the opportunity of reproducing the engravings, which he once 
owned, of the trial scene at Westminster Hall, and of his portrait 
by Sir Joshua Reynolds. I am also much indebted to the 
Rev. Warren Hastings, M.A., of Churchill, Oxfordshire, to Miss 
A. C. Hastings, of Martley, Worcestershire, and to Mr. Warren 
Hastings W^oodman-Hastings, of Stubhill, near Twining, 
Worcestershire, for particulars about the Hastings family, as 
well as to the Earl of Rosebery, K.G., Viscount Cross, G.C.B., 
General Sir Charles D'Oyly, Bart, of Newlands, Blandford, 
Dorsetshire, the late Sir George Scharf, K.C.B., Director of 
the National Portrait Gallery, the Hon. Henry Dudley Ryder, 
of Messrs. Coutts & Co., the Rev. Arthur Grisewood, M.A., 
Rector of Daylesford, and Mr. George Murray Smith, of 40, 
Park Lane, London, for various communications which they 
have very kindly made to me with regard to subjects that are 
alluded to in this book. 

C. L. 

London, 1895. 



I. A Worcestershire Famiey i 

II. Birth AND Educa'Iton 17 

III. His Indian Career AND Return Home .... 34 

IV. Mrs. Hastings 49 

V. His Arch-enemy 67 

VI. His Triai 98 

VII. Caricatures 125 

VIII. Park Lane AND Daylesford 139 

IX. Amusements AND Excursions 156 

X. Belated Recocini i ion of Services 180 

XI. Some of His Friends 193 

XII. Thi: Closin(; Scene. 227 

Appc7tdix. Portraits and other Memorials .... 245 







Birthplace of Hastings . 


Bisham Abbey 

Cassell & Co. ..... 


Burke, Edmund . 

Sir Joshua Reynolds .... 


Bust in Westminster Abbey 


Caricatures . 

Author, after Cillray, etc., 85, 86, 89, 

105, 106, no, 122, 126, 127, 128, 

130, 131, 132, 133, 135, 


Carlton House 

Cassell & Co. ..... 


Clive, Lord . 

London Magazine .... 


Cornwallis, the Marquis 

Singleton Copley .... 


Daylesford Church, Old 

Author, after an old sketch . 


Daylesford Church, New 

From a photograph .... 


Daylesford House 

From an old lithograph (opposite) 


Daylesford House from the 

l,ake . 



East India House 

Permission of h. Constable & Co. 


Ellcnborough, Lord 

Sir Thomas Lawrence 







Facsimiles ..... 

Baptismal Certificate, 18 ; Certificate 
of Writing Master, 31 ; Application 
for Wrilership, 32 ; Letter to Lord 
Rochford (opposite), 42 and 43 ; 
Letter to Sir J. H. D'Oyly (oppo- 
site), 210 ; page of the Diary (oppo- 

site). ...... 

Fox, Charles James 

Sir Joshua Reynolds .... 


Francis, Sir Philip 

J. Hoppner ..... 


Francis tablet at Mortlake 



George III. , King, and Queen Char- 

5 ) • • • • • • 



George IV., King 

Sir Thomas Lawrence 


Gloucester, the Duke of 

Author, from an old sketch 


Haileybuiy College 

Permission of A. Constable & Co. 


Hammersmith Old Church . 

Cassell & Co. ..... 


Hastings, the Marquis of 

Martin Archer Shee .... 


Hastings, Sir Charles . 

From an old photograph 


Hastings, Admiral Francis Decimus 

From an old photograph 


Hastings, Admiral Sir Thomas 

From an old photograph 


Hastings, Warren 

Sir Thomas Lawrence . Frontispiece 

5 » 5 J ... 

Sir Joshua Reynolds (opposite) . 


. • • 

Masquerier ...... 


Hastings Cup, the Warren . 



Hastings tablet at Churchill . 

, ) . • . . . . 


Hastings, Mrs. .... 

Ozias Humphry (opposite) . 


Hastings, the Rev. Warren . 

From a photograph by Mendelssohn . 


Heber, Bishop .... 

T. Phillips 


House of Commons, the Old . 

Permission of the Fall Mall Magazine 


House of Lords, the Old 

J? 55 5> !> 


Impey, Sir Elijah .... 

Tilly Kettle 


Ivory Chairs ..... 

Author ...... 


Lawrence, Sir Thomas . 

Charles Landseer .... 


Loughborough, Lord . 

European Magazine .... 


Melchet, Hastings Temple at 

Author, from engraving 


Mortlake Church .... 

From a photograph .... 


Persian Seal 

Author ...... 


Pitt, William .... 

From an old print .... 


Plumer, Sir Thomas 

Sir Thomas Lawrence 


Porch, 40, Park Lane . 

Author ...... 


Sheridan, Richard Brinsley . 

vSir Joshua Reynolds .... 

1 1 1 

Sidmouth, Lord .... 

Sir William Beechey .... 


Statue by Flaxman 

After a photo by W. (iriggs 


Thurlow, Lord .... 

Sir Thomas Lawrence 


Ticket of Admission 

From a photograph .... 


Trial Scene, Westminster Hall 

L. Dayes (opposite) .... 


Wellesley, the Marquis . 

Sir Thomas Lawrence 


Wellington, the Duke of 


\Ve^lininster School 

Cassell & Co. . . 22, 23, 24, 26, 27 




It is conjectured that Warren Hastings was descended from a 
Danish sea-king, who was vanquished by King Alfred of Eng- 
land, after a long career of what in our days would be called 
piracy ; but one need not go so far back to establish his claim 
to belong to an old county family. Ethelbald, King of the 
Mercians, made a grant of the ford in the dale, called Daylesford, 
to Begia, " a servant of God," for the erection and support of a 
monastery, which is supposed to have been destroyed during 
the Heptarchy. In 874 Wereford, Bishop of Worcester, gave 
six manses in Daylesford to Ceolwulf, King of the Mercians, 
on easy conditions, for his own and three successive lives. A 
hundred years later, when the land had reverted to the Bishop 
of Worcester, it was conveyed to yEthelred, King of England, 
who gave it to Alfere, Earl of Mercia, by whom it was made 
over to his brother, Athelstan, for his life. About the time of 
the Norman invasion the land was seized by Agelwice, Abbot 
of Evesham, who, however, had to restore it to the Bishop of 
Worcester. Otto, the grabbing brother of the Conqueror, then 
possessed himself of the property ; but eventually the Bishop 
established his superior right to it. A notice of Daylesford was 
duly entered in the Conqueror's Survey, known as the Domes- 
day Book. 

At this period Astrope de Hastings held lands at Fecko, in 




Warwickshire, and from him descended John Hastings, Baron 
of Abergavenny, created Earl of Pembroke. The Earls of 
Pembroke married thrice into the Royal Family ; but for " five 
generations," it is recorded, the " father never saw the son, nor 
the son the father," owing to the sons being born posthumously. 
John Hastings, last Earl of Pembroke of that creation, died 
without issue, and the Earldom thereupon reverted to the Crown, 
and the Barony of Abergavenny went by marriage to another 
family. From another branch of the -Hastings family sprang 
the Earls of Huntingdon. In the reign of Henry H. Milo de 
Hastings held land at Daylesford from the Bishop of Worcester ; 
and either he, or a relative of the same name, " Sir Miles Hast- 
ings of Daylesford com : Wigorn," resided there during the reign 
of Edward I. The head of the family thus became lord of the 
manor of Daylesford. The son and heir of the second Milo, 
or Miles, namely, John Hastings of Daylesford in Worcester, 
and of Telford in Oxfordshire, married a daughter of Thomas 
Penyston, or Pynaston ; the son and heir of this John Hastings 
married a daughter of Sir Richard York, Kt., of York ; and the 
succeeding son and heir, Simon Hastings, died, aged eighty-two, 
at Daylesford in 1627, and was buried in the parish church. 
Plis tomb bears the following inscription : — 

Doth marvel, reader, that I here do lye 
Who might have made this church my canopy ? 
Why, 'tis no wonder. Should a strong-built story 
Hinder my corps in mounting to its glory ? 
My parting soul forbad it ; and withall 
Charg'd me to chuse this place of buriall. 
That this my tomb each passenger might tell 
They must expect the sound of passing bell. 
Eightie two years compleat my days did make 
Before my mother earth me home did take, 
And when her right in all mankind she leave 
Heaven to the blest my purest earth receive. 

In the year 1834, shortly before her death, Lady Charlotte 
r^itz Gerald gave to her niece, Maria, Marchioness of Bute, 
various papers relating to her family, including the following 
letter, dated 9th March, 1804, ^^om Warren Hastings ; and in 
.October, 1852, Lady Bute made a copy of this letter for Sir 



John D'Oyly, and stated, in a note, that she did " not know to 
whom it is addressed " : — 

My dear Friend, — I am much gratified, from a better principle, I 
trust, than that of pride, by the honor which the Countess of Moira has 
done me, in the question which she has desired you to propose to me, 
namely, " When my ancestors settled in Worcestershire ? " The only 
authority to which I can at present have recourse for the solution of this 
question, is Dr. Nash's history of Worcestershire. This book contains 
many detailed particulars of the family, and among the rest this passage : 
" In the reign of Henry 2nd, Milo de Hastings held three hides of land in 
Daylesford of the Bishop of Worcester, for which he owed suit to the court 
of Blockley, and hundred of Winborewater." In another place it says, 
Astrope Hastings "held lands at Fecko in Warwickshire of the Bishop of 
Worcester, so early as the reign of the Conqueror, or very soon afterward." 
As the distance of time between the death of William the Conqueror, at 
which period A. de H. settled in Warwickshire, and the commencement of the 
reign of Henry the 2nd is but sixty-seven years, it is most probable that Milo 
de Hastings w^as the first of the line that settled in Worcestershire ; that is, 
in that part of the county which afterwards became the property and fixed 
residence of the family through many centuries ; and in this opinion I am 
confirmed by my recollection of a genealogical table copied (I believe) from 
the record of a visitation made in the reign of James ist, in which the first 
name inscribed upon it is stated to be descended from Milo de Hastings. 
Hence it appears that my ancestors first settled in Worcestershire between 
the years 1 154 and 1 189. 

Dr. Nash, relying on the authority of Penyston Hastings, my grand- 
father, derives the pedigree of the family from " Hastings the Dane." 
Whatever splendour it might boast from so remote an antiquity, and so 
distinguished a progenitor, it has lain in great obscurity ever since the 
reign of Charles ist, when (according to the historian) "John Hastings having 
spent four manors in defence of the King, conveyed Telford " (one of those 
in Oxfordshire) "to Speaker Lenthall," to save the rest of his estate. 1 
should be happy if my genealogy could be traced to any ramification, how- 
ever distant, that could bring it into an affinity with a family so illustrious 
as that branch of it to which the Countess of Moira belongs, and with a 
lady, for whom I may be allowed, though personally unknown to her, to say, 
that I entertain a very high respect ; and I did once take some pains, and 
with very able assistance, to explore it, but without success. I wish too 
that I could call you my cousin ; but I want no heraldry to tell me that 
you are my friend, and I hope you know with equal assurance, that I am. 
Most sincerely and affectionately yours, 


A daughter of Simon Hastings married W. M. Gardiner, of 
Lagham, Surrey, son of Sir William Gardiner, Kt., "whose heir 


he was." The younger Gardiner died "yefift of January, Ao 
1632," aged thirty-two, at Daylesford, and the slab placed to 
his memory, close to the Communion Table, bears a brass plate, 
on which he is represented in the costum.e of the period of 
James I. The following quaint inscription, on brass plates, 
runs around the edges of the slab : — 

A full carowse (vain world) let those drink up 
That like thy sweetes : I did but kisse ye cup ; 
Thy best I tasted and dislik'd ; for when 
Thy enjoy'd pleasures doe bat weary man 
What will thy labors doe. This made mee soone 
To seeke for rest before my age's noone. 
Should any blame my haste let it suffice, 
I went to bed betimes, betimes to rise. 

During the Civil War Hastings of Daylesford vied u'ith other 
Worcestershire gentlemen in making sacrifices first for Charles 
I., and, after that King's execution, for his fugitive son and heir. 
He joined the Royal Army as a volunteer ; he sold his estate 
in Oxfordshire ; he heavily mortgaged his property in Worcester- 
shire ; he parted with his plate in order to find money for the 
Royal exchequer ; and, after disposing of half of his possessions 
for " the cause, ' he ransomed himself by making over most of 
the remaining half to Speaker Lenthall, of Cromwell's Parlia- 
ment. He was thus beggared by his fidelity to his King and to 
the King's son ; and, when the latter was restored to the throne, 
he made the family no compensation for the great losses which 
it had loyally sustained on his father's and his own behalf 

According to an old record, in which the name of the family 
is spelt in a variety of ways, the living of Daylesford was 
bestowed as follows between 1281 and 1701 : — 

Year. Patron. 

1281 Thos. de Hastynge 

1302 Prior et Con. Wor. 

1305 do. 

1325 Rolandus de Hastynge ... 

1335 Thos. Hastynge de Daylesford ... 

1364 Rex ratione custodie heredis 

1399 Laurentii de Hastynge defuncti... 

1419 Thos. Hastynge 

1 48 1 Edwardus Hasting 

Thos. de Cursen. 
Wustan de Wygon. 
Willis de Shireborn. 
Ds. Wills Trybe. 
Henricus Motte. 
Philippus Haym. 
Henricus Bovere. 
Johannes Coleshull. 
Ricardus Bilhowey. 







Edvvardus Hasting 

Will'us Atkinson. 



Mauricius Berthram, A.M. 



Will'us Vincent. 

1 49 1 


Will'us Lake. 


Joh. Hastyngs 

Joh. Haddington. 



Ricardus Ireland. 


Simon de Hastyngs 

Georgius Osboldston, A.M 


Carolus rex ratione inemoris etatis Joh. 

de Hastynge ... 

Johannus Wyld. 


do. do. do. 

Tho. Bunce, A.M. 


Johannus Hastings 

Johannus Stephens. 


Franc. Russell (Baronettus^ 

Com. Withom, A.M. 


Penyston Hastings 

Carolus Penyston, A.M. 



Penyston Hastings, A.B. 

Peny.ston Hastings, the patron in 1701, had two sons, the 
elder of whom was Samuel Hastings, and the younger was the 
above-mentioned Penyston Hastings, A.B., the Incumbent. The 
elder branch of the family is still largely represented, and Sir 
James Stephen was in error, therefore, when he stated in his 
Story of Nunconiar that Warren Hastings " was the last de- 
scendant of the family to which he belonged." 

Samuel Hastings had a son, William Hastings, who resided 
at Shipton-under-Whichwood, in Worcestershire, and died, 
leavitig a son, James Hastings, who lived in Hanover Square, 
London, and died in 1768, aged sixty-three, leaving a son, also 
named James, in holy orders. This Rev. James Hastings, M.A., 
had fifteen children ; became Rector of Martley, in Worcester- 
shire, and died in 1856, at the patriarchal age of one hundred. 
The eldest of his seven daughters, Joanna Hastings, born in 
1782, died in 1886, aged one hundred and four. The second of 
his eight sons, John Paget, entered the Church, became Curate 
of Martley ; went to India as a Chaplain in the East India 
Company's service, and had a son. Warren Hastings, who died 
at Ferruckabad, in the Bengal Presidency, in 1838, aged twenty. 

The Rector's fourth son was Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Hast- 
ings, K.C.B., of Titley Court, Herefordshire. This distinguished 
officer was a Lieutenant on board H.M.'s ship Undaunted, when 
Napoleon was conveyed in that vessel to Elba ; and he wrote 
the following letter from that island to his family in England :— 



No pen can do justice to the rapturous joy with which we were received 
by the inhabitants of Marseilles, a town whose trade had particularly 
suffered from our exertions to destroy it, on the i6th of April, when we 
returned from a short cruise to our old station at that port. The day before 
we had learnt from a fisherman that some great change was expected. On 
that morning" we observed the white flag flying on all the forts with the 
English united ; this induced us to stand close in, when a deputation of 
the inhabitants came on board with the Mayor, and invited us to anchor, 
and informed, us of the joyful intelligence of peace, and the downfall of the 
disturber of the world — Bonaparte. To describe the immoderate exclama- 
tions of enthusiastic joy would be impossible. The air re-echoed with cries 
of " Vive le rot."' " Vive Louis XVIII.."' " Vive T Anglais At 12 we 


saluted, and anchored. It was strange to view those very people who had 
so short a time before been employed doing each other all possible mis- 
chief, now rushing into each other's arms, and embracing with a more than 
fraternal warmth. 

We remained at Marseilles till 23rd of April, when we received orders 
to sail for Frejus to take the ci-devant Emperor to Elba. On the 24th we 
arrived, and on the 27th everything was arranged for his embarkation. 
This mighty enemy of England preferred trusting himself in the hands of 
those very people whom he had so often stigmatised as being destitute of 
honour and principle to those over whom he had reigned, and so often led 
to victory and glory. On his way down he had met with no insult except at 
Avignon, where the people hung his effigy by the wayside, and called out 
to see the tyrant. He was escorted by a regiment of Austrian Hussars, and 
accompanied by a Russian Marshal, and Colonel Campbell of the Guards. 

At Frejus he remained two days, and on the night of the 28th left that 



place to embark. The road was lined with Hussars, and a square was 
formed on the beach around the boat. At half-past 8, he embarked in the 
utmost silence, which was only interrupted by a trumpet march. The sea 
was peacefully calm, and the whole scene was fully impressive. 

Deserted by all his Generals but two, as well as the greater part of his 
domestics, ever fearing for his safety, he throws himself on board a frigate 
belonging to that country whose deadly enmity he justly merited. There 
he is received with all the honours due to a Sovereign Prince, which, to do 
him justice, he was fully alive to, and he observed the English were indeed 
noble and generous enemies. It behoves me to say that the unbending 
fortitude and the noble firmness with which he bears the reverse of cir- 
cumstcmces does at least command l espect ; and could we divest ourselves 
of the idea that the murderer of d'Enghien, A. Wright, etc., etc., stood 
before us, we might soon rise into admiration. The same night we weighed 
anchor, and made. sail. During a long passage of six days he assumed an 
affability which certainly did not appear natural to him. His height is five 
feet five inches, inclining to fatness, which makes him appear inactive and 
unwieldy, his eyes are grey and extremely penetrating. The expression of 
his countenance is by no means agreeable, and his conversation is general, 
and on all subjects he seems well informed. His attention seems to have 
been much turned to naval affairs, as his remarks on that head were 
extremely apt and pertinent. I was appointed one of the Commissioners 
for taking possession of the island, and rendering the flag independent, and 
therefore, on our drawing near, I quitted the" ship with Count Clamon and 
General Count Drouet, and went through all the necessary ceremonies, after 
which we returned, and found the ship nearly in the port of Ferrara. Next 
day his flag, which is an odd one, being white with red diagonal stripes 
and three bars, which he says should indicate his wish to cultivate Industry, 
Harmony, and Peace, was hoisted, and a salute of twenty-one guns by the 
Undauiitcd took place, followed by all Forts. At two o'clock the procession 
was ready, when he stepped into the boat, the guns were manned, and as 
soon as he cleared the ship a royal salute was commenced. The style we 
rowed into the Mole was, first the Emperor's boats with Marine Guards and 
Officers, and the Officers of his household ; afterwards a concourse of shore 
boats with music, people strewing flowers and cheering our landing. He 
was received by the Municipality, who presented the city keys, made of 
gold, on a plate of silver. Then we marched in the greatest order, the streets 
being lined with troops and strewed with flowers, the air re-echoing with 
cries qI''^ T Empereur P'' " Vive Napoleon le Grand!'''' The greatest scene of 
hypocrisy was now to be performed. On entering the Church, the Te 
Deum was sung ; and the disturber of the world, this scourge of nations, 
knelt down at the altar of that God he had so often denied, and into Whose 
presence he had hurled so many unwarned and unexpected victims. I had 
borne everything else with patience, and those honours paid were certainly 
due to him as a sovereign ; but to observe the sanctified veil he drew over 
his face called to my remembrance that the greatest and most complicated 
villain was at this moment before my eyes, and awakened in my breast 


sentiments far from being friendly. This mass over, we proceeded to the 
house arranged for Napoleon's palace, where all the forms of allegiance 
were observed. We thus ended our most extraordinary voyage ! 

The Admiral founded the gunnery ship Excellent^ and died in 
1872, aged eighty-seven. 

The Rector's fifth son, William Warren Hastings, had ten 
children, the eldest of whom, Warren Burrows Hastings, Rector 
of Ludford, Lincolnshire, died in 1871, leaving five children, 
the eldest of whom is the Rev. Warren Hastings, M.A., of 
Cavendish College, Cambridge, now Curate of Churchill — the 
birthplace of his famous kinsman and namesake — and chief 


living representative in the male line of the old family of 
•Hastings of Daylesford. Before he entered the Church the 
Rev. Warren Hastings was a keen soldier, and he held a com- 
mission as Lieutenant in the 4th Battalion of the Worcestershire 
Regiment, and also one in the Cambridge University Volunteers. 
After he was ordained he made the modern grand tour of the 
world, via America, Japan, China, and India. He arrived at 
Denver, in the United States, early in November, 1892 ; and he 
was prom.ptly interviewed by a reporter of the local Republican, 
with the result that the following paragraph appeared the next 
morning in that journal : — 



"Warren Hastings, England," is upon the register at the Metropole 
Hotel. It is a classical name — Warren Hastings. That name has cut a 
prominent figure in English history. Tiie Warren Hastings of old was 
Governor-General of India. He ruled that province with autocratic sway. 
When he returned to England he was impeached for cruelty to the natives. 
Edmund Burke, the celebrated English orator, was his prosecutor. His 
accusation of Hastings is one of the most eloquent speeches of the world. 
Burke was assisted in his prosecution by Fox and Sheridan. That was in 
1786. Warren Hastings was small and delicate. His relative, who is now 
in Denver, is tall, robust, and of athletic build. He is a clergyman of the 
Church of England. He was formerly a Lieutenant in the Army. He is a 
graduate of Cambridge, a cultivated and affable Englishman. He is very 
much impressed with the architectural beauty and the business push of 

The Rector's sixth son, Sir Charles Hastings, M.D., D.C.L., 
will always occupy a prominent place among Worcestershire 
worthies. He was born in 1793 ; and, having entered the 
medical profession, he settled as a practitioner in the city of 
Worcester in 18 18, the year of the death of his eminent relative 
at Daylesford. In 1832 he took the initiative in establishing the 
Midland Medical and Surgical Association at Worcester, and 
commenced the publication of that Society's Journal. He 
occupied the post of Secretary and mainspring of this Society 
for eleven years, when he was prevailed upon to accept the 
position of President and Treasurer. The Society's influence 



increased so steadily under his care that, in 1856, it was some- 
what reluctantly resolved to exchang^e its provincial for a 
national status, and it was then re-named The British Medical 
Association, and its office was removed from Worcester to 
the metropolis. Dr. Charles Hastings was unanimously elected 
President and Treasurer of the new Society, and he retained 
the former office, and discharged its duties with unabated zeal 
until his death in 1866, at the age of seventy-three. He was 
created a Knight Bachelor, and he was the recipient of honours 
from numerous scientific and philanthropic societies. At the 
meeting at Chester, of the British Medical Association, shortly 
after his death, it was stated by the new President, that, " in every 
relation of life Sir Charles Hastings was a man to be loved, to 
be respected, and, I may say, to be venerated." Later in the 
year, at the annual meeting of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, the venerable Lord Brougham, having 
referred to the " great position and distinguished fame " of Sir 
Charles Hastings in the medical profession, and to his " kind- 
ness and humanity in the exercise " of his duties as a physi- 
cian, proceeded to say that " his labours in the investigation 
of physical science, and as founder of the Natural History 
Society of Worcestershire, showed how little his studies were 
confined to the profession of which he was so distinguished an 
ornament." The British Medical Association founded a Hastings 
medal in honour of its first President, to be awarded for emi- 
nent service to medical science by any member of the medical 
profession in any country. The latest recipient of the medal is 
Dr. Lawson Tait, the famous physician of Birmingham. The 
Association, as a further mark of respect for its founder, had his 
head engraved on its seal. 

Sir Charles Hastings left a son, George Woodyatt Hastings, 
who founded the above-mentioned British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, and for several years represented the 
PLastern Division of Worcestershire in Parliament. The Rector's 
seventh son and tenth child, named Decimus, entered the Navy, 
and, like his brother. Sir Thomas Hastings, attained the rank 
of Vice-Admiral. The Rector's eighth son, Henry James 
Hastings, entered the Church, succeeded his father as Rector 


of Hartley, became Honorary Canon of Worcester, and Rural 
Dean, and died in 1875, aged seventy-eight, leaving a son, the 
Rev. John Parsons Hastings, the present Rector and patron of 

Francis Decimus Hastings, the seventh son and tenth child 
of the Rev. James Hastings, Rector and patron of Hartley, and 
patron also of Areley Regis, was born at Bettcrley, near 
Ludlow, of which parish his father was then Rector, in October, 
1795, and went to sea in 1807, or in the twelfth year of his 
age. He was a midshipman of H.H. ship Amethyst when she 
was wrecked in Plymouth Sound. He saw a great deal of 
active service on the coast of Spain, during the Peninsular 
War, as an officer of the frigate Ins, He then went on the San 
Domingo to the North American station, and saw more active 
service. In Harch, 18 14, he was promoted, after examination, 
to be Lieutenant, and served in the CharivelL for a time, and 
then joined the learns, of which his brother Thomas was First 
Lieutenant, on the South American station. Later on he 
served in the West Indies, where his health broke down, and 
he was placed on half-pay in 1821, at the age of twenty-six. 
Being conscious of the defects in his education, owing to his 
early removal from school, he now read for some months with 
his brother Henry ; then entered as an undergraduate of 
Trinity College, Cambridge ; passed a most creditable examina- 
tion, and graduated B.A. In 1824 he was appointed First 
Lieutenant in the Sta^, which vessel he often commanded 
during the absence of the Captain, Sir Thomas Troubridge, 
H.P. for Sandwich. In 1832 he was transferred to the Exeellent 
as First Lieutenant to his brother. Captain Sir Thomas Hast- 
ings, K.C.B. He was promoted to Commander in 1840. and 
appointed to the Edinbnrgk. During the Syrian war of that 
year he showed signal bravery and good judgment, and was 
complimented in despatches for his " coolness and gallantry." 
At the bombardment of Acre he commanded the Eciinburghy 
and was severely wounded. He was then promoted to be 
Captain, and received a gold medal from the Turkish Govern- 
ment, and the war medal from the Admiralty. But, owing to 
his health having been permanently impaired by wounds and 


hardships, he had now to relinquish active service. In 1859 he 
was promoted to be Rear Admiral, and was advanced to the 
rank of Vice- Admiral in 1865. He married twice, but had no 
family. He died on the 21st of May, 1869. He was then a 
churchwarden of St. Stephen's Church, Barbourne, and on the 
30th idem, being the Sunday after his funeral, reference was 
made to him in a sermon that was preached in that church b\' 
the Rev. T. G. Curtler, M.A. The preacher chose for his text 
Ephesians iv. 25 — " Speak every man truth with his neighbour. 


for we are members one of another" — in order to enforce his 
argument that "truthfulness of character" peculiarly distin-. 
guished the deceased Admiral. He described him as — 

A man with a keen and intelligent interest in the affairs of the time, 
keeping abreast of the questions of the day (whether reHgious or secuku ), 
having" strong views of his own, but never colouring a fact to make it favour 
his own way of thinking, or favour another way less ; a man never forward 
to express opinion, but expressing it simply and directly w^hen reasonably 
formed and called for ; one, in spite of some natural impatience (the result, 
it may be, of the bodily disease which had distressed him long, and to 
which he at last succumbed), ever striving to understand, and give due 
weight to the argument of an opponent ; one ready to acknowledge, and 
glad to see success where himself had foreboded failure— such an one, to 



the best of my belief, was he who is gone, and such an one is eminently 
a truthful man. 

And now as regards the younger branch of the family of 
Penyston Hastings, the penultimate owner of Daylesford. The 
Rev. G. R. Gleig, Chaplain-General, states in his Memoirs of 
Warren Hastings, that his hero's grandfather was the second 
son of Samuel, last lord of the manor ; that the benefice was 
a poor one ; that, like others in his situation, the Rector pre- 
ferred to share his indigence with a partner, rather than suffer 
it alone : so he married, and had two sons, the elder, named 
Howard, born in 171 1, the younger, called Pynaston, in 1715." 
Mr. Gleig was under a misapprehension ; for the name of the 
lord of the manor referred to was Penyston, he having been 
named after his mother's family, the Penystons of Coggs, in 
Oxfordshire ; and he gave his name to his second son, whom he 
presented to the living in 1701. It is recorded in the old Parish 
Register at Daylesford, which is in a bad condition, that — 

The Revd. Mr. Penyston Hastings Gierke Batchelor of Arts was in- 
ducted into ye Parish Church of Daylsford in ye Diocess of Worcester 
ye 15th day of November 1701 and did ye Sunday next following in ye said 
parish church read ye morning and evening prayer of ye Church of England 
and did give his unfeigned assent and consent to ye Book of Common 
Prayer and did likewise read ye same day in ye time of divine service ye 
39 Articles of ye Church of England and gave his unfeigned assent and 
consent to ye same and likewise did do and perform everything required 
of him by ye Act of Uniformity made ye 14th of ye Reign of King Charles 
ye 2nd. 

The elder son, Howard, obtained employment in the Customs 
in London, and prospered, for it appears from a statement in 
the British Museum of a case by Messrs. Way & Shepherd, 
Solicitors, for the opinion of Mr. John Madocks, of Lincoln's 
Inn, Barrister-at-Law, which bears date the ist of November, 
1780, that, on the 12th of June, 1747, Howard Hastings, then of 
the parish of St. James's, Westminster, executed a will by which 
he left an annuity of £20 to his father, the Rev. Penyston 
Hastings, of Daylesford ; an annuity of ^^5, both to his aunt. 
Honor Hastings, and to his sister, Elizabeth Hastings, such 
annuities to be increased in each case to £10 after his father's 
death ; and an annuity of ^^50 to his wife Jane, daughter of the 


Rev. Moses Terry, of Lincoln, on condition that she vested all 
her property in trust during her life for the said Mr. Terry and 
his wife, and after their decease in trust for his nephew, Warren 
Hastings. He gave his niece, Anne Hastings, all his right to 
interest on £2,000 old South Sea Annuities, assigned to him 
by John Chadvvick, of London, in trust, for the payment of an 
annuity of £60 to Jane Houghton, of the Cross Keys Tavern, 
Covent Garden ; and he gave his niece an annuity of £20 during 
the life of the said Jane Houghton, or until such time as she 
became possessed of the said i^2,ooD stock. He expressed his 
desire that she would relinquish her right to interest in two 
houses in Cheltenham — namely, the Plough Inn and an adjoin- 
ing house — to her brother, Warren Hastin^rs. He g-ave William, 
Duke of Cleveland and Southampton, "the best horse and all the 
fowling pieces " that he was possessed of ; and he bequeathed 
his diamond ring to Miss Mary Vane. He stated that he was 
entitled to an annuity of £200 during the life, and also to the 
sum of £2,000 on the death of the Duke. He gave his nephew, 
Warren Hastings, an annuity of £j\.o, " which, with the nett 
produce of the Cheltenham estate," he desired might be applied 
towards the said nephew's maintenance and education. He 
gave all his real and personal estate, excepting the ;^2,ooo 
South Sea Stock, to his executors for the payment of the above- 
mentioned legacies, and he directed that any surplus that might 
remain after such payment should be invested in Government 
securities, until his nephew, Warren Hastings, attained the age 
of twenty-one, when the accumulation should be paid over to 
him. Should his nephew not reach that age, then the surplus 
was to be paid to his niece, Anne. He stated that as the Hon. 
Henry Vane —nephew of the Duke of Cleveland, who after- 
wards became Viscount Barnard and Earl of Darlington — had 
often done him the honour to profess a great friendship for him, 
and a desire to serve him on account of some service that he, 
the testator, had done for him and his family, he took the 
liberty to recommend his nephew, Warren Hastings, to his care 
and protection. He also said that if he might presume to beg 
a favour of Lady Grace, it was that she would take his niece, 
Anne Hastings, under her ladyship's protection. He appointed 



the Hon. Henry Vane, Henry Vane the younger, Fairmadoc 
Peniston, of Cornwell, in the county of Gloucester, and Joseph 
Creswicke, his executors. 

Howard Hastings died in 1749, without revoking or altering 
his will ; Joseph Creswicke, then sole surviving executor, died 
in 1772 ; William, Duke of Cleveland, died in 1774; and the 
majority of the beneficiaries in the will — excepting Warren 
Hastings and his sister — died before 1780. It was alleged 
that during the period of twenty-three years that he survived 
the testator, Joseph Creswicke had either received, or by his 
wilful neglect had failed to receive, the annuity of ^200 due 
to the estate by the Duke of Cleveland, and that his, Joseph 
Creswicke's, executors had failed to recover the i^2,ooo due on 
the Duke's death, from his executor, the Earl of Darlington. It 
was estimated that the sum which should have been received 
from the Duke by way of annuity during the period that he 
survived Howard Hastings amounted, without interest, to 
£^,000, irrespective of the ^2,000 payable on the Duke's death. 
It was proposed, therefore, to take action on behalf of Warren 
Hastings, then Governor of Bengal, and Anne his sister, married 
to John Woodman, in order to make the executors of Joseph 
Creswicke account for the payment, or non-payment, of these 
sums. The solicitors anticipated that the learned counsel might 
ask "why so much time had been suffered to elapse," and they 
therefore suggested that, " from the important business in which 
Mr. Hastings and his friends have been engaged on, they had 
not time to think of it." Mr. Madocks gave it as his opinion 
that the lapse of time was no bar to the proposed suit, and he 
explained the course which should be pursued. He pointed 
out, however, that the " materials " for the case were not stated. 
" I presume," he added, " it must have been under some deed 
of agreement between Howard Hastings and the Duke of 
Cleveland." He enquired if any one had the deed, ^' as it ought 
to be stated in the bill to be submitted to the Court." 

There is in the British Museum a draft, running to nine large 
pages, of the first portion of a petition in Chancery to Edward, 
Lord Thurlow, then Lord Chancellor, in which " Warren Hast- 
ings, of Bengal, in the East Indies, Esquire," and "John Wood- 


man, of the parish of St. James, in the City and Liberty of 
Westminster, in the County of Middlesex, Esquire, and Ann, 
-his Wife, late Ann Hastings," state that Howard Hastings "was 
in his lifetime, and at the time of his death, seized of, and 
well entitled unto a v^ery considerable real estate, and also pos- 
sessed of considerable personal estate, consisting of Household 
Goods and Furniture, Plate, Linen, China, Books, ready money 
in the public funds, Bond notes, Mortgage Leases for years, and 
other personal Estate." The particulars of his will were then 
recapitulated, and the petitioners proceeded to sa}^ that some 
time after the testator's death the Hon. Henry Vane, and 
Henry Vane the younger, and Fairmadoc Peniston renounced 
the probate and proof of the \\'\\\ which was then proved 
b}' Joseph Creswicke. The latter portion of the petition has 
not been preserved. Here, apparently, the matter rested. 
Presumably the deed of agreement could not be found, and 
nothing is now known of the nature of the service which was 
rendered by Howard Hastings to William, Duke of Cleveland 
(grandson of King Charles the Second by Barbara Villiers), 
Hereditary Chief Butler of England, Receiver-General of Profits 
of the Seals in the King's Bench and Common Pleas, and 
Comptroller of the Seal and Green Wax Office. There was 
obviously a divergence of opinion between him and the Duke 
as to the latter's liability in honour and in law to pay the 
annuity ; and as his bequests appear to have been dependent 
to a great extent on the receipt by his executors of that annuity, 
much disappointment must have been caused to Warren Hast- 
ings and the other prospective beneficiaries under his will. 



According to Mr. Gleig, the second son and namesake of the 
Rev. Penyston Hastings was married in 1730, when " he could 
not have been more than fifteen years of age," to Hester Warren, 
daughter of Mr. Warren, proprietor of a small estate, called 
Stubhill, near Twining, in Gloucestershire, and " the conse- 
quences of a connection formed so improvidently were such 
as never fail to ensue in such cases. The young couple soon 
began to experience the extremity of remorse and destitution. 
How they managed to subsist at all I am quite at a loss to con- 
ceive. . . . Yet they did live together for two years, during 
which his wife presented her boy-husband with two children. 
. . . Warren Hastings was born on the 6th December, 1732, 
and his mother died a few days afterwards. . . . His father 
seems to have quitted Churchill almost immediately on the 
decease of his wife." Lord Macaulay took it for granted that 
Mr. Gleig had authority for his assertions ; and, in his famous 
essay, he stated that young Pynaston was an " idle, worthless 
boy." But though, as Warren Hastings remarked many years 
afterwards to E. B. Impey, "there was not much in my father's 
history that would be worth repeating," Penyston Hastings was 
not a "boy" in 1730. The reduced facsimile which I give over- 
leaf of the entry in the register of Churchill of the baptism of 
the future Governor-General shows that, at the date mentioned 
therein, namely 1732, the father of the infant was recognised 
by the minister and churchwardens of the parish as a man in 
holy orders. 

Mr. Warren Hastings Woodman- Hastings, grandson of War- 
ren Hastings' sister, who inherited, and now resides on the 
Stubhill estate, informs me that his great-grandfather, the so- 
called " boy," was the eldest of four children, and was born at 


Cornwell, in Gloucestershire, in 1704 ; being followed by Pris- 
cilla, born at Cornwell, in 1706 ; Howard, born at Daylesford, in 
171 1 ; and Samuel, born at Daylesford, in 1715. The Rector 
named his eldest son after himself, and educated him for the 
Church. Eventually he sent the youth to Balliol College, 
Oxford, where he matriculated. The following is the entry 
in the admission book of the College: " IMarch 26th, 1724. 
Penistoiie Hastings films iinicus Penistoni Hastings Clericiis de 
Daleford in agro Worcestien : adniissiis est coniniunariiis!' As 
the Rector had three sons at this date, it is supposed that unicns 
in the entry was a clerical error, as primus would have been 

more correct. The presentations for degrees are carefully 
entered in the College bursar's books, and the lists for 1724 
and for several succeeding years have been searched in vain for 
proof that Penyston graduated at Balliol. Xor is it known when, 
or where he was ordained ; but it is evident that, in 1730, he 
was a good deal older than " fifteen." In Foster's Alumni 
Oxoniensis he is described as " s. Penyston, of Daylesford, co. 
Worcester cler:" and it is stated that he "matriculated at Balliol 
on the 28th March, 1724, aged sixteen." Hester, his wife, was 
not a young girl, as she is described by Gleig and others, when 
she married ; for, according to her great-grandson, she was bap- 
tized in the parish church of Twining in 1705, and she was 
therefore five-and- twenty at the date of her marriage. 



Some light is thrown on the position of the Warren family by 
the draft of a curious petition to Lord King, Baron of Orkham, 
Lord High Chancellor of England, dated the 3rd of November, 
1733, and bearing the signature of W. Lane, which is in the 
British Museum. In this document, which was amended by 
order of the Court, on the 7th of December, 1734, John Warren, 
of Tyning, in the county of Gloucester, as " their Uncle and 
next friend," moved the Court on behalf of " your Orator and 
Oratrix," Warren Hastings and Ann Hastings, to institute 
an inquiry into the disposal of moneys that belonged to their 
mother, Hester Hastings. It sets forth that Hester Hastings 
was entitled before her marriage to £220, " which was coming 
or belonging to her out of a copyhold estate at Cheltenham," 
and likewise to a considerable sum of money from the estate 
of John Fletcher, late of Exchange Alley, London," by virtue 
of his will, dated the 23rd September, 1721 ; that by an agree- 
ment entered into before her marriage with Penyston Hastings, 
of Church Hill, in the county of Oxford, clerk, dated 29th July, 
1730, the latter covenanted that all moneys which she was then 
in possession of, or might hereafter become entitled to, by will 
or otherwise, should be " conveyed or lodged " in the hands of 
Thomas W^arren, her brother, and Ann Warren, her mother, for 
the use of her, the said Hester, for life ; and that should the said 
Penyston survive her, then that he should have the interest of 
her fortune during his life, and, after his decease, that such 
fortune should be divided equally between their issue. It then 
alleges that the said Penyston Hastings, father of the " Orator 
and Oratrix," having contracted many debts with his uncle, 
Harry Gardner, his father, Penyston Hastings, of " Darlsford," 
in the county of Worcester, clerk, and " diverse others," had 
" lately withdrawn himself from his habitation to some distant 
place, and left your Orator and Oratrix wholly unregarded and 
unprovided for by him." It accuses him of having "combined 
and confederated " with his uncle, father, Thomas Warren, and 
Ann Warren, to "defeat the said marriage agreement," by 
assigning away the moneys accruing from his wife's fortune 
towards the payment of his own debts ; and it declares that the 
creditors were consequently interrupting, diverting, and mis- 


applying the money that was in trust ; and were thereby defeat- 
ing the purposes of the trust " contrary to equity and good 
conscience." It prays, therefore, that Penyston Hastings the 
elder, Penyston Hastings the younger, and Harry Gardner may 
be restrained from receiving any part of the income derivable 
from Hester's estate, and that " some provision and allowance 
m.ight be made for your Orator's and Oratrix's maintenance." 
In conclusion, it begs that the case may be heard " before this 
High and Honourable Court." 


I am unable to say whether the petition was ever presented ; 
but, as Warren Hastings preserved the draft until the eighty- 
fifth year after it was prepared, probably he attached importance 
to the statements that it embodies. 

It may be supposed by the reader of Gleig and some other 
writers that Warren Hastings was born in a hovel, when his 
father was in the " extreme of destitution " ; but it will be seen 
from my sketch that his birthplace is a substantially built, f^iirly 
commodious, and well-situated house, which no curate no\v-a- 
days should mind occupying. A tablet has been placed in front 



of the house by Earl Ducie, who has also had a memorial 
erected on a green near the house, in honour of " William 
Smith, Father of British Geology," who was born at Churchill 
in 1769, and died at Northampton in ICS39. 

Three years previous to the birth of Warren Hastings, his 
great-grandfather, Samuel Hastings, was compelled by pecuniary 
embarrassment to sell the Daylesford estate to Mr. Jacob 
Knight, a London merchant. With this gentleman the Rector 
(grandfather of Warren) subsequently engaged in litigation over 
the tithes, which proved so costly that he was constrained to 
move to Churchill, and reside there. He did not, however, 

resign his small benefice, which he held for fifty-one years. He 
then died, in 1752, and was buried in Daylesford churchyard. 

Warren Hastings remained at Churchill, under the care of 
his grandfather, until his eighth year. The locality still answers 
to the description which William of Malmesbury gave of it some 
seven hundred years ago, as " a land rich in corn, productive of 
fruits in some parts by the sole favour of nature, in others by 
the art of cultivation, enticing even the loss to industry by the 
prospect of a hundredfold return." Close to Churchill is a 
rivulet. In after-life Hastings said to a friend : — 

To lie beside the margin of that stream and muse was one of my 
favourite recreations ; and there, one bright summer's day, when I was 


scarcely seven years old, I well remember that I first formed the deter- 
mination to purchase back Dayles- 
ford. I was then literally de- 
pendent upon those whose 
condition scarcely raised 
them above the pres- 
sure of absolute 
want ; yet some- 
how or another, 
the child's dream, 
as it did not ap- 
pear unreasonable 
at the moment 
so in after 


years it never faded away. God 
knows there were periods in my 
career, when to accomplish that, or 
any other object of honourable am- 
bition, seemed to be impossible, but 
I have lived to accomplish it. And 
though, perhaps, few public men have 
had more right than I to complain 
of the world's usage, I can never 
express sufficient gratitude to the 
kind Providence which permits me 
to pass the evening of a long and I 
trust not a useless life, amid scenes that are endeared to me by 
personal as well as traditional associations." 

so many 



The boy was removed by his uncle Howard (who, as has been 
said, obtained employment in the Customs in London) from 
the village school at Churchill when he was eight years old ; 
was placed for two years at a preparatory school at New- 
ington, near London, where he was well taught, but ill fed ; 

and at ten was transferred to Westminster School, where he 
remained upwards of six years. This famous School was 
founded by Queen Elizabeth in 1560, and established in old 
monastic buildings, which it still occupies, to the south of West- 
minster Abbey, which has always stood in the relation of chapel 
to the School. Additions have been made and some improve- 


ments effected in the present century ; but, in most respects, 


the School still wears an aspect closely resembling what it did 
when the delicate little orphan from Churchill was consigned 



to the tender mercies of his schoolmates, and subjected to the 
severe discipline, rough accommodation, and short commons 
that were the lot of a boarder. Shortly before he joined the 
School the venerable granary of the " monks of old," which had 
been used since i 560 as the school dormitory, was pulled down, 
and on its site, to the right of the gateway, a new dormitory 
was built, which contained one spacious room in which the 
lads commanded few of the necessaries of comfort, and oppor- 
tunities for privacy that render the cubicles of modern schools 
so agreeable. The old gateway is unchanged, except that it is 
now dwarfed, when viewed from Little Dean's Yard, by the 
majestic Victoria Tower of the Houses of Parliament in the 
background, and that a few more names of old boys have been 
carved on its stones. The walls, windows, and roof of the Great 
Schoolroom remain substantially as they were a century since ; 
but, in the interior of the room, the lower part of the wall has 
been wainscoted with unpolished and carved oak. The "shell," 
or apse, at the north end of the room has also been wainscoted, 
and provided with a dais, on which the canopied chair of the 
Head Master, and, on each side of it, eleven chairs for the 
Monitorial Council are arranged. The arms of the Founder 
and of twelve Head Masters adorn the curved wall of the shell ; 
and the arms of old boys who achieved distinction in after life, 
with their names, and the dates of birth and death, are painted 
on the wainscot of the shell and around the room. The Warren 
Hastings shield, showing the " manche," or sleeve,^ which he 
adopted as an heraldic emblem, is close to the Head Master's 

^ Miss A. C. Hastings, of Hartley, a member of the family, has informed 
me that " WilUam, son of Samnel, must have had the mermaid crest," which 
he transmitted to his descendants now Hving. " It is a fact that when 
Warren Hastings became Governor-General he had no crest, so he ordered 
search to be made as to what crest he ought to take. The Huntingdon family 
are descended from an heiress of the Earls of Pembroke — Margaret de 
Hastings, who took the Hastings coat-of-arms with her into tlie Hunting- 
don family, but not the crest. The Huntingdon crest is a bull's head. 
Warren Hastings adopted that with the Hastings' manche." In a sheet 
of facsimiles of the coats-of-arms carried by the nobility and gentry at the 
battle of Hastings in 1066, there is depicted a manche, or sleeve, painted 
black, instead of red as the Huntingdon and Hastings' families have it. 



chair, and is near the shields of Thomas Pelham, Duke of 
Newcastle; William Covvper; Charles Montagu, Earl of Halifax; 
Charles W'entworth, Marquis of Rockingham ; John Locke ; 
William Murray, Earl of Mansfield ; John Dryden ; William 
Pulteney, Earl of Bath; Francis Attenbury; Henry Fitzmaurice, 
Marquis of Lansdowne ; Sir Christopher Wren, etc. Immedi- 
ately in front of the Head Master's chair is an ancient oak 
table, blackened by time, and much notched, containing a 
drawer, in which repose now, as was the case in Hastings' time, 
neatly made birches wherewith to convey striking arguments to 
disorderl)^, or indolent lads. An iron bar, from which once hung 
a curtain that divided the upper from the lower school, still 


remains, and the chief cook of the School continues every 
Shrove Tuesday to hurl a pancake over it, in conformity with 
the custom of the Pancake Grease," the origin of which has 
yet to be discovered.^ The College Hall is at an inconvenient 

1 The following paragraph appeared in the Daily Telegraph, 27th Febru- 
ary, 1895 

"'Tossing the pancake ' is a custom too ancient and too popular at West- 
minster School to be forgotten on Shrove Tuesday, and the traditions 
of the institution were accordingly duly observed. Shortly after twelve 
o'clock a small procession, headed by one of the Abbey vergers carrying a 
silver wand, and in which the cook, arrayed in white, holding in his right 
hand a large frying-pan containing a newly made pancake, was a prominent 
figure, left the kitchen, and advanced to the door of the great school. 
Knocking thrice, according to time-honoured custom, the inquiry was made, 
' Who demands admittance?' when the reply was given, ' The cook.' The 
bar which separates the upper from the lower school had in the meantime 
been drawn out, and all the boys were congregated behind the barrier. 



distance from the Schoolroom, and is reached through the 
cloisters of the Abbey. It was built nearly five hundred years 
ago, contiguous to the Jerusalem Chamber of the Abbey; and it 
has undergone no alteration since Hastings dined and supped 
at its massive oak tables, which are said to have been made 

On admission the cook and his attendants advanced midway up the hall, 
and the former, whirling the frying-pan three times round his head, dexter- 
ously hurled the pancake amid the crowd of expectant youngsters, who 
scrambled for its possession. Master Guy Simonds, son of Captain 
Simonds, chief officer of the Metropolitan Fire Brigade, had the good for- 
tune to secure the largest piece, and immediately ran off to the Deanery to 
claim the usual reward of a guinea. The cook became entitled to a similar 


Scholarship in the School, and he came out, on the 27th May, 
1747, at the top of the following list of successful candidates, 
which forms one of the curiosities in the School Library : — 

Electi in Scholam Wf.stmonasterij. 



Oppidiun. .^:ns. 


Warrenus Hastings 

Filius Pennistoni 





Bartholoma;us Wall 

,, Jacobi 


Stafford lie 



Henricus Toundrow 

,, Thonice 

Stafford ia^ 




Elijah Impey 

,, Elijah 





Just: us Alt 

,, Tustii 





Robertas Andrews 






Jacobus Bensley 

,, Jacobi 





Daniel Shipton 

,, Johannes 





Johannes Hales 

5, Thorn a; 





Nathaniel Hume 





1 1. 

Andreas Burnaby 

,, Andreae 





Georguis Suialridge 






Thomas Hebbes 

,, Johannis 





Guiliclmus Wasey 

,, (julielmi 





Philippus Williams 

,, Lewellini 




It is noticeable that in the above list only five of the fifteen 
lads whose names are given belonged to the county of Middle- 
sex. Two came from Oxfordshire, and one each from Essex, 
Staffordshire, Suffolk, Hertfordshire, Kent, Leicestershire, Ches- 
ter, and Glamorganshire. 

It appears from the register that among Hastings' many 
schoolfellows at Westminster were the following notable per- 
sons : the above-mentioned Elijah Impey, Chief Justice of 
Calcutta ; the poets Charles Churchill and William Cowper ; 
Henry Fitzmaurice, Lord Shelburne, afterwards Marquis of 
Lansdowne ; George Hobart, third Earl of Buckinghamshire ; 
F. Vane, M.P. for Durham ; Hamilton Boyle, Earl of Cork and 
Orrery, and High Steward of the University of Oxford ; John 
Warren, Archdeacon of Worcester ; A. Burnaby, Archdeacon of 
Leicester ; Thomas MacGwire, Attorney-General of North Caro- 
lina ; Ralph Barnes, Archdeacon of Totnes ; Philip Duval, Canon 
of Windsor ; Paston Gould, Colonel of the 20th Foot ; John 
Marsden, Prebendary of York ; John Hinchcliffe, for a few 
months Head Master of Westminster School, then Master of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, and finally Bishop of Peterborough ; 
Samuel Smith, Head Master of W'cstminster School and Prcb- 



endary of Westminster Abbey ; George Colman, dramatist, 
translator, and joint proprietor of Covent Garden Theatre ; 
Nathaniel Hume, Canon of Sarum ; William Digby, Dean first 
of Worcester, and then of Durham ; etc. 

The most noteworthy memorial of Hastings at the School is 
a silver cup, or poailuin, of large size and great weight, called 
the "Warren Hastings Cup," which was presented in 1777, 
for the use of the King's Scholars of St. Peter's College, by 
Hastings and other " old boys " then residing in India, in token 
of their undiminished attachment for their School. On one 

side of the cup the arms of the School (without the motto, 
" Dat Deus ijicrementuvi ") are engraved, and the other side 
bears the following inscription : " Aluinnis Regiis ScJiolcB West- 
inon : ipsi plerique Alumni, D.D.D.,'' beneath which are the 
names: Warren Hastings, Elijah Impey, Geo. Templer, Edw. 
Hay, Joh. Wombwell, Gul. Markham, Joh. White, Ch. Benezet, 
Pet. Touchet, Rob. Holt, Joh. Scawen, Joh. Williams, Alex. 
Macleod, R. S. Perreau, Edw. Bengough, G C. Meyer, Car. 
Cooper, Geo. Arbuthnot, F. Pierard, Car. Mouatt, Gul. Frank- 
Hn, and Gual. Hawkes. 

In 1801 Sir Elijah Impey attended the election dinner in the 
College Hall, and the Rev. Mr. Wingfield, under-master, after- 



wards Prebendary of Worcester, composed some Latin verses in 
honour of the distino-uished cruest, which were recited bv Edward 
Goodenough, captain of the School, afterwards Dean of Wells. 
The following is E. B. Impey's translation of the lines : — 

Welcome ! old brother Westminster, to these 
Time-honoured walls : our Lars and Lemures 
Hail thee a pilgrim worthy of their shrine. 
True to thy pledge : for lo I yon pledge is thine. 
Wafted on Hooghly's tide, from far Bengal, 
Yon tankard tells of old St. Peter's Hall ; 
Tells of thy pHghted faith, and blameless truth 
In age redeem'd the promise of thy youth : 
That mimic tusk, from elephantine bone, 
Chang'd to a silvery lustre not its own. 
Those thinking heads on solemn draughts intent, 
Their lithe probosces into handles bent 
Invite thy grasp. Then toast Elisa's name. 
Drink deep : A " Floreat to our Royal dame ! 
Yet thou no more gratuitous canst share 
The rich carouse : for lo ! 'tis reckon'd there, 
Whate"er of glory in the gift may be 
Graces the giver, and reverts lo thee. 

Hastings worked hard, and gave such good promise by his 
attainments in classics of reflecting honour on the School, that, 
when his uncle died, and his guardian and distant kinsman, Mr. 
Chiswick, a Director of the East India Company, resolved to 
send him to India, and with that object decided on removing 
him, at the age of sixteen, from school, the Head Master, Dr. 
Xicholls, interposed. Hastings commenced his autobiography 
when he was an old man, but wearied of the task after filling 
four pages. Those pages were found among his papers after 
his death, and have been shown to me by Miss Marian Winter, 
of Worton House, Steeple Aston, Oxfordshire, grand-niece of 
Mrs. Hastings. In the earlier part of this fragment Hastings 
said : — 

My uncle Howard, to whom I am indebted for my education, and for 
every other care of me which good principle unimpelled by natural alTeclion 
could dictate, died in the year 1748. I was soon after taken from school. 
I hazard the imputation of vanity in yielding to the sense of gratitude and 
justice which is due to the memory of my ever revered master, Dr. Nicholls, 
to relate that, when I waited upon him to inform him of that purpose of my 



guardian, he, in the most delicate manner, remonstrated against it, adding 
that, if the necessity of my circumstances was the only course requiring my 
removal, and I should continue at school, he would undertake that it should 
be no expense to me. I have been told that many similar instances of his 
bounty were carried into effect. I could not profit by it. 

Mr. Chiswick was a practical man as became a man of busi- 
ness. He may have cherished admiration, out of office hours, 
for the ancient classics in the abstract ; but his experience 
warned him that a knowledge of book-keeping and proficiency in 
penmanship would be more advantageous to a young " writer " 
in the Company's service than familiarity with Homer, and 
sympathy with Horace. The learned Doctor, on the other hand, 
entertained a profound respect for the ladder, by which he had 
mounted to eminence in the educational world ; and it pained 
him to part with a remarkably clever pupil. Had Mr. Chiswick 
permitted his ward to accept the Doctor's generous offer, Warren 
Hastings may have proceeded to Oxford, or Cambridge, and 
have eventually returned as a master to Westminster. But Mr. 
Chiswick was not to be deterred from his purpose, and Hastings 
left the School in obedience to his guardian's wishes. 

Mr. Chiswick placed young Hastings with Mr. Thomas Smith, 
writing master of Christ's Hospital — or the Blue Coat School — 
for private instruction in accounts and caligraphy ; and, in due 
course, Hastings obtained a certificate from that gentleman, of 
which the following is a reduced facsimile : — 


It will be seen that ^Nlr. Smith testified that his pupil had 
" gone through a regular course of ^Merchants' Accounts." But 

Hastings did not acquire an aptitude for finance ; and, like some 
other great nien who have had a soul above figures, he paid 
dearly in private life for his inefficienc)' in this respect. He was, 



however, indebted to the precepts and example of Mr. Smith for 
the excellence of his handwriting. In after-life he conducted a 
very large official and private correspondence ; and the many 
specimens of his letters, and of the duplicates that he made, 
which are still in existence, show that it was habitual with him 
to dispense with an amanuensis, and to write so that he who 
ran might read. 

Hastings now made an application to the Court of Directors 
of the East India Company for employment. It will be ob- 
served, from the reduced facsimile of his " humble petition '* 
which is given on the opposite page, that he stated that he was 
"aged sixteen and upwards"; represented that he had *' been 
bred up to Writing and Accounts " ; and that, *' being very 
desirous of serving " their " Honours as a Writer in India," 
he prayed them " to entertain him in that Station," which he 
promised "to discharge with the greatest Diligence and Fidelity." 
He also said that he was ready to give such security as their 
Honours might require. The writership was obtained, and 
Hastings embarked without delay for Calcutta, where he arrived 
in January, 1750, a few days after completing his seventeenth 




It would be foreign to my present purpose to sketch the official 
career of Warren Hastings, which has been discussed so amply 
from time to time by Mill, Gleig, Macaulay, Stephen, Strachey,^ 

1 On the 25th February, 1892, The Times reviewed Sir John Strachey's 
monograph, " Hastings and the Rohilla War " (Oxford, at the Clarendon 
Press), and remarked : " The average Englishman's knowledge of Indian 
history is for the most part derived from a single source — Macaulay's two 
celebrated Essays on Clive and Warren Hastings. . . . Unfortunately, 
Macaulay, though his knowledge of some Indian topics was direct and 
profound, relied mainly for his historical facts on Mill's History of British 
India, a work which, as Sir Henry Maine said of English classical literature 
towards the end of last century, 'is saturated with party politics,' Of James 
Mill, Sir James Stephen has written that ' his want of accuracy was nothing 
to his bad faith.' Such was one of Macaulay's authorities ; another source 
of his inspiration was the glowing eloquence of Burke, whose 'sleepless 
humanity,' as Lord Rosebery finely calls it, was not controlled by a too 
scrupulous accuracy, nor inconsistent with the rancour and scurrility of a 
fish-wife. From these sophisticated palettes Macaulay borrowed the colours 
with which he drew his well-known picture of Warren Hastings. Sir James 
Stephen has shown, in his masterly work on The Story of Nunco7nar a?id 
the Impeachment of Warren Hastings, how false was the colour, and how 
distorted the perspective of one portion of Macaulay's picture. ... Sir 
John Strachey has now done signal service to the memory of a great Eng- 
lishman, and to the intelligent and dispassionate study of Indian history by 
setting forth in detail the grounds of the conclusions here stated, and ex- 
amining the whole question afresh. ... To say that he has vindicated 
Warren Hastings against the invectives of Burke and the other managers of 
the famous Impeachment, against the calumnies and inaccuracies of Mill, 
against the involuntary misrepresentations of Macaulay, is to say little. He 
has re-written an important chapter of Indian history, and exemplified the 
true spirit in which that history should be written. But it is all in vain, we 
fear. History has little chance against rhetoric, and Indian history has 
never been made interesting to English readers except by rhetoric. In 
spite of all that Sir James Stephen did some years ago, and all that Sir 
John Strachey has done now, Macaulay will still hold the field, and his 



Trotter, Lyall, Keene, Busteed, and Malleson.^ I will, therefore, 
only say that, after remaining two years in Calcutta, he was 
posted to Cossimbazar, and was employed " in making bargains 
for stuffs with native brokers." In 1756 he married the widow 
of Captain Campbell, of the Company's service, who bore him 
two children — a daughter, who lived but nineteen days, and a 
son, who was sent home for education, but died very young. 
Mrs. Hastings died at Cossimbazar, when her husband was 
Resident at that station, shortly after the birth of her son. 
There was some resemblance between her fate and that of her 
husband's mother ; but very little is known about the period of 
his life with which she was associated. He was summoned to 
Calcutta in 1761, in his twenty-ninth year, as a Member of 
Council ; and in 1764 he returned to England, after an absence 
of fourteen years, having realized a " very moderate fortune," the 
greater part of which he left in Bengal, in view to obtaining a 
high rate of interest. He was generous to such relatives as 
he found in England — too generous, as it proved, for his own 
comfort, since his investments in Bengal proved so ill-advised 
that he lost all the savings that he had left behind him. He 
found that the widow of his uncle Howard was in poor circum- 
stances, and he purchased an annuity of £200 a year for her. 

picture of Warren Hastings will still be accepted as authentic by that body 
of readers who care less for truth than for effect." 

1 On the 19th January, 1895, the Saturday Review acknowledged in very 
appreciative terms the " public service " which Colonel G. B. Malleson, 
C.S.I., had rendered by writing his Life of Wa?'re7i Hastings^ and re- 
marked : " The time has, in truth, come for a Life of Warren Hastings 
which shall fairly represent the materials now existing for it. Sir James 
Stephen's examination of the great judicial episode in Hastings' Indian 
career, Sir John Strachey's scrutiny of the most striking of his military 
undertakings, Dr. Busteed's researches into the social aspects of Calcutta 
life in the last century, Sir Charles Lawson's monograph on the years at 
Daylesford, and Mr. Forrest's three volumes of selections from the Bengal 
records from 1772 to 1785, have supplied a new body of evidence which 
required to be sifted by a master's hand. Colonel Malleson has now, with 
patient labour, accomplished for Warren Hastings' life as a whole what Sir 
James Stephen and Sir John Strachey effected for particular incidents of his 
public career. . . . This book forms a fitting continuation of many acts 
of redress which Colonel Malleson has secured for names worthy of honour, 
but done to death by slanderous tongues." 


His sister had married Mr. Woodman, who subsequently became 
steward to the Duke of Bridgewater ; and to her he made a 
present of £\,ooo. 

He made the acquaintance of Dr. Johnson about this time, 
and the lexicographer formed a high opinion of him. In a 
letter which he wrote to him after his return to Calcutta, dated 
the 30th March, 1774, Dr. Johnson remarked : — 

Though I have had but little personal knowledge of you, I have had 
enough to make me wish for more ; and though it is now a long time since 
I was honoured by your visit, I had too much pleasure from it to forget it. 
By those whom we delight to remember we are unwilling to be forgotten ; 
and therefore I cannot omit this opportunity of reviving myself in your 
memory by a letter which you will receive from the hands of my friend Mr. 
Chambers, a man whose purity of manners and vigour of mind are sufficient 
to make everything welcome that he brings. . . . That he is going to 
live where you govern, may justly alleviate the regret of parting ; and the 
hope of seeing both him and you again, which I am not willing to mingle 
with doubt, must at present comfort as it can, Sir, 

Your most humble servant, 


On the 20th December of the same year, Dr. Johnson for- 
warded to the Governor-General a copy of his Journey to the 
IVestej'u Islands of Scotland, and said : — 

Being informed that by the departure of a ship there is now an oppor- 
tunity of writing to Bengal, I ani unwilling to slip out of your memory by 
my own negligence, and therefore take the liberty of reminding you of my 
existence by sending you a book which is not yet made publick. I have 
lately visited a region less remote, and less illustrious than India, which 
afforded some occasions for speculation. What occurred to me I have put 
into the volume, of which I beg your acceptance. Men in your station 
seldom have presents totally disinterested. My book is received, let me 
now make my request. There is. Sir, somewhere within your government, 
a young adventurer, one Chauncy Lawrence, whose father is one of my 
oldest friends. Be pleased to show the young man what countenance is fit, 
whether he wants to be restrained by your authority, or encouraged by your 
favour. His father is now President of the College of Physicians, a man 
venerable for his knowledge, and more venerable for his virtue. I wish you 
a prosperous government, a safe return, and a long enjoyment of plenty and 

In July, T776, Dr. Johnson remarked in a letter to Mr. Fowke 
that, " I live in a reciprocation of civilities with Mr. Hastings." 


In the opinion of Mr. Boswell,* Hastings was "a man whose 
regard reflects dignity even upon Johnson — a man the extent of 
whose abilities was equal to that of his power ; and who, by 
those who are fortunate enough to know him in private life, is 
admired for his literature and taste, and beloved for the candour, 
moderation, and mildness of his character," This was written 
in 1 79 1, while Hastings was still on his trial at Westminster 
Hall ; and it was prompted by the compliance of Hastings with 
Boswell's request for permission to see and publish three letters 
which Hastmgs treasured as mementoes of Johnson. Hastings 
forwarded the letters to Boswell on the 2nd December, 1790, 
from his house in Park Lane ; and, in a covering letter, he ex- 
plained that " my veneration for your great and good friend. Dr. 
Johnson, and the pride, or I hope something of a better senti- 
ment, which I indulged in possessing such memorials of his 
good-will towards me," had induced him to bind these three 
letters, " which I believe were all that I ever received from Dr. 
Johnson," in " a parcel containing other papers, and labelled 
with the titles appertaining to them." 

After four years of inactivity at home, he was compelled by 
pecuniary embarrassment to solicit re-employment in India. 
The Directors knew his worth, and appointed him second in 
Council in the Government of Mr. Du Pre, at Madras, at the age 
of thirty-seven. They informed the Madras Government that — 

Mr. Warren Hastings, a gentleman who has served us many years upon 
the Bengal establishment with great ability and unblemished character, 
offering himself to be employed again in our service, we have, from a con- 
sideration of his just merits and general knowledge of the Company's affairs, 
been induced to appoint him one of the members of our Council at your 
Presidency, and to station him next below Mr. Du Pre. He will proceed in 
one of the Coast and Bay ships, by which you will be advertised of such 
further directions as may be necessary concerning his appointment. 

Outfit allowances were not yet granted to Governors and 
Councillors ; and Hastings, it is said, " was forced to borrow 
money for his outfit, but he did not withdraw any portion of the 

^ The Life of Samuel fohnson., LL.D.^ by James Boswell, edited by Percy 
Fitzgerald, M.A., vol. ii. London : Swan Sonnenschein, Lowrey & Co., 


sum which he had appropriated to the relief of his distressed 

Hastings secured a cabin on board the Duke of Grafton. 
The following list of her passengers is preserved in the India 
Office :— 

For Madras: Warren Hastings, Esq. (Deputy Governor of Fort St. 
George), the Rev. A. Salmon, Lieutenant John Searle, John Charles Maclin 
(Writer), William Syce (Cadet), Acton Wollaston (Cadet), Travers Danver 
Taylor (Cadet), Hugh Dilkes Harding (Cadet), Clement Higginbotham 
(Cadet), Ralph Winstanley Wood (Cadet). 

For Bengal : Mr. and Mrs. hnhofif and child, Mrs. and Miss Thompson, 
Miss Pearce, John Moulton (Free Mariner), Daniel Redmond, Thomas de 
B. McLaughlin, Philip de Lisle, Benjamin Whitehead (Cadet), Thomas 
Reynolds (Cadet), Hugh Munro (Cadet), John Jefferson (Cadet), James 
Denty (Cadet), George Douglas (Cadet), George Anderson Eastland (Cadet), 
W' illiam Nassau Green (Cadet), the Honourable Frederick Stewart (Writer), 
Adam Callender, Esq. (Captain of Infantry), Archibald Ramsay, Charles 
Barber, Thomas Hatch, Philip Coates, Richard Long, John Hicks (Ship's 
Carpenter), Hugh Burridge, and Henry Griffith (servants) ; and Sukey, 
Maria, and Rose (native maid servants). 

Hastings entered upon the duties which devolved upon him 
at Fort St. George with characteristic ardour. He was chiefly 
engaged as export warehouse-keeper, ex officio, and the ex- 
perience that he had gained in a similar capacity in Bengal 
enabled him to check abuses, and to promote the best interests 
of the Company's trade. His success commended him to the 
authorities at the India House ; and, two and a half years after 
he arrived in Madras, he was offered, and accepted, the Gover- 
norship of Bengal. He was ambitious of occupying a more 
influential and lucrative sphere of action than presented itself at 
Fort St. George ; but he did not leave Madras without regret, 
for " I never did business," he wrote, " with men of as much 
candour, or in general of better disposition " than his colleagues 
in the local Council. He had lived " with much comfort " 
among "the people of this settlement"; and "I am flattered 
with the assurance that I shall leave more who are sorry than 
who are glad that they lose me." His relations with Mr. Du 
Pre, the Governor of Madras, had been of a most friendly 
nature, and he assured a Director of the East India Company 
that he was happy in leaving that gentleman in the chair. " I 



hope," he kindly added, " the Directors will encourage him to 
continue in it. His abilities are very great, and if equalled by 
any quality it is by his unwearied assiduity and application." 

In a letter to Sir George Colebrooke, which he wrote on 
the voyage from Madras to Calcutta, he remarked that "the 
uncommon abilities and unwearied application of Mr. Du Pre 
left me little room to exert myself beyond the limits of my own 
particular department " : — 

As to the rest of my conduct, I must content myself with the humble 
merit of having made it my study to give every support in my power to the 
measures pursued by the President, and to contribute my share to the good 
understanding which I had the happiness to see reign at the Board during 
the whole time that I was a member of it. I cannot wish myself a better 
fortune than to be seconded by men equally disposed to support and co- 
operate with me, and equally satisfied with the rectitude and propriety of my 

His last official act in Madras was to write, on the 31st 
January, 1772, to Mr. Du Pre to formally advise him of his 
" appointment to the Government of the Company's affairs in 
Bengal," and his approaching departure " to my allotted station." 
He then said : — 

Having performed the duties of respect in that address, permit me. Sir, 
now to indulge the sentiments of my heart, in expressing the personal con- 
cern which I feel in losing, with your presence, the hopes which I had 
conceived of being admitted to a share of your confidence and friendship. 
The distance to which I shall shortly be removed almost wholly deprives 
me of so pleasing a prospect, at the same time that it furnishes me with the 
means of offering you this declaration of my esteem, without hazarding the 
imputation or suspicion of flattery. 

I hope still to be honoured with a place in your remembrance as a 
person who would have esteemed it a happiness to have devoted his best 
services to the support of your welfare. I, on my part, shall never forget the 
many instances which I have received of your kindness, nor yet the very great 
and amiable qualities which eminently distinguished your character, especially 
the sincerity and candour of your expressions, and the gentleness of your 
manners. These are virtues which in private life will always command 
love and respect ; but in persons of your elevated sphere are the best 
endowments in the gift of Heaven, and the source of blessings to man- 

Hastings was overwhelmed with work in his new position in 
Calcutta, but he continued to cultivate the friendship of his chief at Madras. On the 8th October, 1772, he wrote to 


assure Mr. Du Pre that he would consider it as a misfortune 
were he to lose the pleasure of hearing from him, " for I can truly 
assure you that I receive more comfort from your letters than 
from any written thing on this side of the Cape, or perhaps on 
the other." 

I confess I am interested enough to wish you may change your mind 
and stay another year, because if you do, I know it will be from motives 
that will do you credit, and because I shall be, or think myself, secure of 
having added to my present perplexities a share in those of Fort St. George. 
I cannot help thinking that you may receive an invitation from the Directors 
to remain, as they have let their resentment drop so lightly, and have yet 
thought of no person for your successor. 

Mr. Du Pre vacated his appointment in the following February, 
■and wrote a letter of farewell from Madras to Hastings, who, in 
the course of a long reply, said : — 

I am happy in the assurances which you give me of your friendship, and 
thankful for the promise of your support. My own heart tells me that I have 
a just claim to the former, and I shall endeavour by every means to main- 
tain my claim to it until I am so fortunate as to meet you in England. 
I know not whether my pride is not as much interested as my fortune in the 
opinion which you may entertain of my conduct. I shall contrive from time 
to time to submit it to you, and shall be obliged to you for your advice and 
unreserved sentiments upon it. 

I remember hearing you declare you would lead a country life, and have 
no more concern in public business. I hope, and am not altogether selfish 
in hoping it, that you will not adhere to this resolution. But whatever 
line you may make your choice, may you be happy, loved, honoured, and 
esteemed as much as I think you deserve. 

Hastings made suitable acknowledgments for his promotion 
to the friends who had interested themselves on his behalf. To 
Lord Shelburne he wrote : — 

The Court of Directors have since been pleased to confer upon me the 
government of their possessions in Bengal — an honour equally unsolicited 
and unexpected on my part. By whatever means it has fallen to my lot, 
there is a degree of confidence implied in the manner of it, which claims a 
more than ordinary share of my attention to the very weighty affairs of that 
presidency. You will permit me to say, my Lord, that you have furnished 
an additional motive to my ambition, in the desire which I feel to merit the 
^ood opinion which your Lordship has already been pleased to express of 

In a letter to Sir George Colebroke, a Director, Hastings 
said : — 


I feel too sensibly the weak ground on which my interest stands, unless 
supported by the most wary conduct in the administration of the very weighty 
affairs entrusted to my charge ; and I know too well both the proneness 
which people in general have to misrepresent the actions of those in 
authority, and the too great readiness with people at home to credit implicitly 
such misrepresentations. It is impossible to avoid errors ; and there are 
cases in government in which it may be necessary to adopt expedients 
which are not to be justified on such principles as the public can be the 
judges of. 

He then promised to have the good of the Company always 
at heart. 

Soon after he had assumed office, the Directors of the East 
India Company wrote to the President and Council of Fort 
William : — 

We wish we could refute the observation that almost every attempt made 
by us and our administration at your Presidency for the reform of abuses has 
rather increased them, and added to the miseries of the country we are 
anxious 10 protect and cherish. Are not the tenants more oppressed and 
wretched ? Are our investments improved ? Has not the raw silk and 
cocoons been raised upon us fifty per cent, in price ? When oppression per- 
vades the whole country, when youths have been suffered with impunity to 
exercise sovereign jurisdiction over the natives, and to acquire rapid fortunes 
by monopolising commerce, it cannot be a wonder to us, or yourselves, that 
native merchants do not come forward to contract with the Company, that 
the manufactures find their way through foreign channels, or that our invest- 
ments are at once enormously dear and of debased quality. ... It is, 
therefore, our resolution to aim at the root of those evils. Our President, 
Mr. Hastings, we trust, will set the example of temperance, economy, and 
application ; and upon this we are sensible much will depend. And here 
we take occasion to indulge in the pleasure we have in acknowledging Mr. 
Hastings' services upon the coast of Coromandel in constructing, with equal 
labour and ability, the plan which has so much improved our investments 
there ; and as we are persuaded he will persevere in the same laudable pur- 
suit through every branch of our affairs in Bengal, he in return may depend 
on the steady support and favour of his employers. 

In the year 1773 the Indian Regulation Act was passed in 
Parliament, at the instance of Lord North ; and Bengal, which 
had previously ranked as a Presidency under Madras, and before 
Bombay, was constituted the chief and over-ruling province. Its 
Governor was at the same time made Governor-General of the 
three Presidencies, and Hastings was promoted to the new office. 
With him was associated a Council of four, namely, Mr. Richard 



Barwell,^ of the Company's Bengal Civil service ; v/ith Mr. Philip 
Francis, General (afterwards Sir) John Clavering, and Colonel 
the Hon. George Monson, who were sent out from England. 
Fortified by the complacent assurance that human nature is the 
sam.e everywhere, the new arrivals tested Oriental men and 
Oriental things by Occidental standards, and passed judgment 
thereon with a light heart and heroic platitudes, little realizing 
that the longer Europeans live in, work for, and sympathise 
with India, the more should they realize the magnitude and 
difficulty of the task of grafting Western upon Eastern modes 
of thought, feeling, and practice. Instead of giving respectful 
consideration to the local experience which had been laboriously 
accumulated by Hastings and Barvvell, they systematically 
ignored it ; and, priding themselves on their open minds, and 
their freedom from race prejudice, they habitually placed the 
Governor-General in a minority, and unhesitatingly brought his 
authority into contempt. 

On the 14th December, 1774, Hastings wrote a demi-official 
letter to Lord North, thanked him for his new appointment, and 
alluded to the chronic feud in the Council, in consequence of the 
unconciliatory proceedings of the persons who had been selected 
by the Premier to assist in carrying his plans into execution. 
On the same day he addressed the following letter to the Earl 
of Rochford : — 

^ Richard Barwell was the son of William Barwell, Governor of Bengal, 
1748, and afterwards a Director of the East India Company. He was born 
at Calcutta in 1741, and was educated in England. He obtained a writer- 
ship on the Bengal establishment in 1756, and was appointed a member of 
the Bengal Council in 1774. Two years later he married Miss Sanderson, 
the "reigning beauty of Calcutta." He retired in 1780, and is said to have 
returned to England "with one of the largest fortunes ever accumulated in 
India." In 1781 he purchased from the Earl of vScarborough, for ^102,500, 
the estate of Stansted in Sussex (eight miles from Chichester) ; and during 
the five following years he expended a large sum of money in enlarging the 
house, and beautifying the grounds, with the aid of Bonomi, James Wyatt, 
and "Capability Brown." In 1784 he entered Parliament as member for St. 
Ives, and in 1796 he was returned for Winchelsea, but he resigned his seat 
a few months later. He died at Stansted in 1804, aged sixty-three, and the 
estate was sold by Sir Elijah Impey and his other trustees. (See DicL 
National Biog.) 

^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^t^ ^/i^^ /W^^*--^' 

X./^^^ ^..^^^ 


{Reduced size.) 

[Face page 42. 



The mode adopted by Parliament for communicating to His Majesty's 
Secretaries of State " all such Letters and Advices as shall any way relate to 
the civil and military Affairs and Government of this Country," renders it 
proper for me to take the earliest Opportunity of paying my humble Respects 
to your Lordship, and of assuring you that it will ever afford me the most 
heartfelt Satisfaction to merit the Distinction with which I have been 
honored in being the first Person nominated to fill the Office of Governor- 
General of Bengal. 

My past conduct in the several appointments held under the Company 
will, I hope, prove to your Lordship the zeal which has actuated me for the 
service of my Country, as well as the Moderation and Circumspection with 
which I have at all times endeavoured to conduct myself. Your Lordship 
will, therefore, do me the justice to believe that every event which occasions 
difference of opinion between me and the members joined with me in the 
Administration must give me the deepest concern, especially in the very 
commencement of the new Government. The Rise and Progress of such 
difference your Lordship will find distinctly marked in the dispatches now 
sent home, which will be officially laid before you by the Court of Directors. 
To these despatches I shall entirely trust for the Defence of my Conduct in 
those matters which have been objected to me as faulty, though attended 
with consequences the most beneficial for the Company and the Nation, 
I shall abstain in this Letter from every species of Accusation against those 
who have occasioned the Distraction of our Councils, lamenting that they did 
not bring that conciliatory Spirit with them with which they found me ready 
to meet them, and which might have tended to heal any Differences incident 
to a Diversity of Opinion. 

If the Decision of my Superiors on these Disputes shall disappoint the 
Expectations which I may have been too sanguine in indulging, I shall 
receive it with becoming Resignation, and with the consolation of having 
acted for the best. But should I be happy enough to meet with the Appro- 
bation of my Sovereign and his Ministers, I shall in that Approbation find a 
comfort equal to the Grief and Anxiety which must continue to agitate 
me till the Question is determined either for or against me. Permit me, 
however, to observe, without deviating from the Intention of this Address, 
that the Question is of great Magnitude and Importance, involving the future 
Progress or Decline of an Empire, and of its Commerce, most essential to the 
Prosperity of Great Britain. I have, &c. 

Hastings had been delicate from childhood, and he was but a 
youth when he first landed in India, Yet his first period of 
uninterrupted service in Bengal extended to fourteen years, 
and his second period was almost as long. He held the office 
of Governor of Bengal for two, and that of Governor-General 
of India for eleven years. He was, while filling the latter 
appointment, thwarted at every turn by those who should have 
relieved him of many of the cares of State that devolved upon 


him. He had not only to direct the administration of the 
province immediately under his own control, but he had to keep 
a vigilant watch over the proceedings of the subordinate Govern- 
ments of Madras and Bombay. He was overwhelmed with 
official duties, and no sooner had he extricated the State from 
one grave difficulty than other troubles demanded his earnest 
attention ; and all the time he had to combat the chronic malice 
of his Council, and the narrow suspicion of the Court of Direc- 
tors. It is marvellous that his health stood the strain of the life 
that he led, for in his day there were no Himalayan Capuas for 
jaded Europeans to flee to for the recuperation of body and 
mind, and the monotony of their existence in the damp heat of 
Bengal was not broken by daily whiffs of news from the outside 
world. Yet exile had its compensations ; and Hastings found 
great solace in the society of his wife Marian (whom he had 
married in 1777), and received from her sympathy a constant 
incentive to exertion. When, therefore, she was compelled to 
return to Europe, his life lost its chief charm, and he set his 
mind on the resignation of his Proconsulate. In 1784 he had 
at times felt, as he stated, " miserably bad " ; but in September, 
1785, he wrote from Benares to his wife, and said : — 

I am indeed in far better health than I was at this season of last year ; but 
the best health that I gain, or can hope to gain in India, is but a palliative 
acquired with continual sacrifice and unmanly attentions. I want a multi- 
tude of aids to cure me thoroughly, all of which may be included in two 
comprehensive but comfortable terms, a hard frost and my own fireside. 

Early in 1785 he wrote to the Court of Directors, and resigned 
his appointment. On the ist of February he gave over charge 
to the Council, and took leave of its members. He then 
embarked in the Barriiigton ; and on the 7th idem — the birth- 
day of his wife— he saw the last of India. The following were 
his fellow-passengers : Mr. John Shore, Colonel Toone, Colonel 
Popham, Major Tooney, Major Lands, Captain Green, Captain 
John Scott, Dr. C. Francis, and Mr. David Anderson. There 
were also twenty-five soldiers of H.M.'s 73rd Regiment. No 
mention is made in the ship's log at the India Office of 
lady passengers. He had a pleasant voyage, " without bad 
weather, in a clean and tight ship, with officers of skill and 


attention, and even of science ; a society that I loved ; and a 
rapid course." He employed his leisure on board in drawing 
up a retrospect of his administration, in disposing of arrears 
of correspondence, and in reading. St. Helena was reached at 
4 a.m. on the 15th April. A "deputation of compliments " went 
on board. At 5 p.m. Hastings landed. He recorded the 
following in his diary : — 

Received by ye Governor at ye landing-place. Supped with him. Put 
up at Mr. Greentree's. \6t/i. Dined with ye Governor. Vansittart came 
in with Colonel Muir, Popham, C. Greene, etc. ijtk {Sunday). Rode before 
breakfast to Mr. Greentree's country house, and dined there. Passed ye morn- 
ing in viewing ye island. At 3 p.m. set off to return by way of ye side path. 
i8//2. Dined and supped at ye Governor's. igfk. At 9 rode with ye 
Governor to Longwood, and round by Mr. Bassett's to his house, dined there 
and returned at 6|. Supped with him 2isf. At noon visited ye Governor, 
took leave of Mrs C., and went to ye wharf, ye Governor, &c., accompanying. 
At 5, weighed. At 5^, sailed. 

The Barriitgton arrived at Plymouth on the 13th of June, 
1785, four months and a quarter after leaving Calcutta, and 
Hastings posted up to London without delay. The following 
entries in his diary refer to his happy meeting with his wife, and 
his reception at Court, at the India House, and elsewhere : — 

Monday^ i^tth June. At 9 a.m. left the Barriiigioit with my fellow pas- 
sengers, and landed at Plymouth at 10.30. Stayed and dined at Prince 
George's Hotel. Detained by the Customs House. At 4.20 left Plymouth, 
passed Ashburton, Ivybridge, Chudleigh,and slept at Exeter. A fine, beauti- 
ful, and highly cultivated country, but hilly, A cold wind from the sea. 

Tuesday., \/\th. Set off at 6, past Honiton (breakfast), Axminster, Bridport, 
Dorchester, Blandford, and Woodyeate's Inn. Arrived at 10.30. Shergold 
a good house. Slept there, very ill and headache. 

Wednesday., i^th. At 5.30 proceeded. Baited at Salisbury, and dressed 
there. Andover, Overton, Basingstoke (dined), Cartford Bridge, Bagshot, 
and Staines. Arrived at 7, slept there ; a most sultry day. 

Thursday., \6fh. At 5.30 proceeded. Baited at Hounslow, and at 8.45 
arrived in London. Mrs. H. at Cheltenham. Saw Mr. and Mrs. Woodman. 
Visited Lord Thurlow and Lord Mansfield at Westminster Hall. Engaged 
to dine with Lord M. on Sunday. Left my name at Mr. Pitt's, Mr. Dundas's 
Lord Sidney's, and Mr, Devayeux's. Wrote to the latter, as Chairman, to 
announce my arrival. Letter from Mrs.. H. ; wrote to her express. 

F7'iday^ lyth. Sent back her servant at 8 with a letter in which I said 
I would set out to meet her in the afternoon. Received a note from 
Mr. Pitt desiring to see me at 3. Visited Lord Lansdowne, and attended 


Mr. Pitt. At 6.45 set off to meet Mrs. H. Met at Maidenhead Bridge. 
Staid all night. 

Saturday, \ Breakfasted. Visited Mrs. Johnstone (Mr. J. not at 
home; at Taplow. Returned with Mrs. H. to town. Engaged to call on 
Lord Sidney on Monday at 12, at the Secretary's Office, Whitehall, and to 
dine with Colonel Barre on Tuesday. Bills. Lord Thurlow's copy of my 

Sunday, i()th. Dined at Cane wood with the Archbishop of York, Lord 
Chancellor, Mr. Markham, and Major Scott. Came away about 8 with 

Monday, 10th. At 12 attended Lord Sidney. Appointed to attend at St. 
James" on Wednesday, at i. 

Tuesday, list. Left my name at y^x. Smith's. \'isited Lady Blunt and 
the Archbishop of York. Early with Lord Thurlow by appointment. Dined 
at Colonel Barre's with Lord Lansdowne, Sir J. Grey, Sir — Jarvis, Sir 
Elijah 'I mpey. 


Wednesday, 22nd. At i went to Court. Litroduced to King by Lords 
Sidney and Onslow . . . Lord Dudley, Lord Grantham, Lord Claren- 
don, Lord Gower, Marquis Carmarthen, Duke of Chandos, &c. Left my 
name at Lord Stormont's ; dined at home. 

Thursday, 2yd. At 2 went with Mrs. H. to Court. Presented to the 
Queen, Princess Royal, Princess Augusta, and King. Afterwards visited 
Mrs. Schwellenberg. Dined with .Archbishop of York. 

Friday, 24///. Visited all the Directors. Saw Mr. Townson, Mr. Parry, 
Mr. Barens, and Sir Edward Hughes. Dined at home. 

Saturday, 25//;. Returned visits. Saw Lord Clarendon, Lord Dudley, 
and Lord Flood. Early at Lord Chancellor's. Dined at Sir Elijah Impey"s, 
Parson's Green. Came away at 12. 

Sunday, 26th. Not well. Mrs. H. headache. Breakfasted at 10. \'isited 
my aunt at Kensington. Dined at home. 

Moftday, 2'jth. Mrs. H. still indisposed. Returned visits. Saw Lady 
Coote. Dined at home. 


Tuesday, 2Zth. Breakfasted at Mr. Sullivan's. At 4. 15 went by engage- 
ment to India House. Received in honour, and thanked by Court of Direc- 
tors unanimously, and dined with them at the London Tavern. Visited 
Board of Control, invited ; returned late, much inflamed. 

In a letter to a friend he alluded to his having been summoned 
to the India House to receive the thanks of the Directors of the 
East India Company for his services ; and added that the Chair- 
man, in reading the resolution of the Court, " dwelt with a strong 
emphasis on the word 'unanimously.'" He was also, he said, 
received by the King and Queen " most graciously " ; and his 
reception by the Board of Control " was more than polite to me." 
Shortly afterwards he dined at Twickenham, w^here Miss Fanny 
Burney first met him. " I was extremely pleased," she wrote to 
her father, " with the extraordinary plainness and simplicity of 
his manners, and the obliging openness and intelligence of his 
communications. He talked of India, when the subject was led 
to, with the most unreserved readiness, yet was never the hero 
of his own tale, but simply the narrator of such anecdotes or 
descriptions as were called for, or as fell in naturally with other 
topics." After meeting him a second time, she recorded in her 
diary that " I am quite charmed " with him ; " and, indeed, from 
all that I can gather, and all I can observe, he appears to me to 
be one of the greatest men now living as a public character ; 
while as a private one, his gentleness, candour, soft manners, and 
openness of disposition make him one of the most pleasing." 

Hastings paid an early visit to Tunbridge Wells, where the 
community regarded him " with an uncommon degree of atten- 
tion and respect. ... I find myself everywhere and univer- 
sally treated with evidences that I possess the good opinion of 
my country." Later on he took a furnished house in St. James's 
Place, and then in Wimpole Street, London, whence he made 
excursions to Cheltenham, Bath, and elsewhere. On one occa- 
sion he went to Churchill and Daylesford, and wandered among 
the scenes familiar to him in his childhood. He endeavoured to 
induce Mr. Knight, the owner of the Daylesford estate (grandson 
of the purchaser in 171 5), to part with it for a sum considerably 
in excess of its market value, but for some time in vain ; and he 
then, as he said, " bought a very pleasant little estate of 91 acres 


in Old Windsor, called Beaumont Lodge, a vwdiis agri non ita 
Diagnus, Jiortiis ubi, &c., exactly answering Horace's wish." Miss 
Burney noted in her diary that she passed an agreeable evening 
at the Lodge, " with that very intelligent and very informing 
man," whose lively and very pleasing wife contributed largely 
to the evening's well-doing." 



It has been stated on a former page that " Mr. and Mrs. 
Imhoff and child " were among Warren Hastings' fellow- 
passengers on board the Duke of Graf Ion, from London to 
Madras. Macaulay says that Imhoff " called himself a Baron," 
implying that he was nothing of the sort ; and he added, on the 
authority of Gleig, that "he was in distressed circumstances, and 
was going out to Madras as a portrait-painter, in the hope of 
picking up some of the pagodas which were then lightly got, and 
as lightly spent by the English in India." Imhoff was probably 
in reduced circumstances, but he was a Baron for all that. It 
appears from a carefully compiled genealogical tree in the 
possession of Miss Winter, that he was seventeenth in direct 
descent from a Crusader of the name of Hoff, upon whom a 
German Emperor bestowed a coat of arms, and conferred the 
prefix of " Im," in recognition of an act of great gallantry in 
the field. He was the third son of Baron Christopher Imhoff, 
and a near kinsman of Baron Gustave Imhoff, who was ap- 
pointed Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies in 1740, 
and in whose honour a large silver medal, bearing his image, 
with an appropriate superscription, was struck. This medal 
was bequeathed to Sir Charles Imhoff, from whom it has 
descended to Miss Winter. Baron Imhoff married Marie Anne 
von Chapuset, whose family (ennobled in Germany) is believed 
to have migrated from France to Germany after the revoca- 
tion of the Edict of Nantes. Three children were born to them 
before they left Nuremberg for India ; namely, a son named 
Ernest, who died in infancy ; the above-named Charles, then 
aged two ; and a daughter, named Amalie, who married General 
von Helwig, of the Prussian Army, and achieved some distinc- 


tion as an authoress. It was Charles who accompanied his 
parents to India. 

Hastings was a young widower, with much in him that offered 
a pleasing contrast to the characteristics of the Baron ; and the 
Baroness was very amiable and intelligent.^ Macaulay remarks 
that " she had an agreeable person, a cultivated mind, and 
manners in the highest degree pleasing.'' This must be an 
accurate description, for otherwise she would not have enlisted, 
on her return to Europe, the regard of such severe moralists as 
King George the Third and Queen Charlotte, as well as of 
Fanny Burney and Hannah More. Macaulay says that " she 
despised her husband heartily " ; and Glei^; argues that the 
"union was one of those against which Nature protests, and 
which are never contracted without entailing on the ill-fated pair 
long years of discomfort, if not of positive misery." There is a 
good deal of assumption in this, but her conduct warranted the 
criticism that the Baroness " was the wife of one whom she had 
never loved." The pair were ill-matched ; yet they may have 
made the best of their bargain for the sake of their children had 
they not encountered Warren Hastings. He is proved by his 
poetical effusions, and by his voluminous correspondence, to 

^ The sketch of Mrs. Hastings by Ozias Humphry, R.A., that was en- 
graved for Gleig's Memoirs of IVarren Hastings, pubiished in 1841 by 
Bentleys, and which I have been courteously permitted by that firm to 
reproduce in photogravure for this volume, illustrates the truth of the 
observation in the Diciionary of Xational Biography^ vol. 28, that " Hum- 
phry stands in the front rank of English miniaturists, and his works have 
always been admired for their simplicity, refinement, correct draughtsman- 
ship, and harmonious colouring ; the same qualities appear in his crayon 
portraits." After achieving distinction as a miniature painter in London, 
Humphry went out to India, at the age of forty-three, to practise his pro- 
fession at the courts of native princes, and he then became intimate with 
Hastings. He had a successful but a brief career in India, for his health 
broke down in 1788, and he was compelled to return to England. He 
resumed miniature painting in London, and was elected a Royal Academician 
in 1 791 ; but as his sight then began to fail him, he relinquished the painting 
of miniatures, and devoted himself to crayon drawing, in which branch of 
art he speedily acquired such distinction that he was appointed Portrait 
Painter in Crayons to the King. In 1797 he became totally blind, and he 
died in 18 10, aged sixty-eight. 



have been a man of deep feeling. He never experienced a 
parent's love ; but was brought up in a hard fashion, and was 
shipped off, while still a lad, to foreign parts, where his lot 
hitherto had been an anxious one. His first marriage was not 
fruitful of prolonged happiness ; and he had been driven by 
impecuniosity, and the difficulty of obtaining employment in 
England, back to the East. He cherished a taste for classical 
literature, which beguiled him on his way, but he found greater 
distraction from the monotony of the voyage in the society of 
the Baroness. 

Gleig observes in a professional manner that, " as if it had 
been God's will to try the strength of their principles to the 
utmost, Mr. Hastings was seized with a dangerous illness during 
the voyage, throughout the whole of which the Baroness nursed 
him with a sister's care, watching by his bedside, often when he 
knew it not, and administering to him all the medicines with her 
own hand." The Baron permitted this exhibition of solicitude ; 
and he decided to land, and remain at the port to which the 
patient was bound in an influential capacity. But, soon after 
the ship reached Madras, either the Baron, with his w^ife's 
approval, or she with his, or both together, wrote to Germany, 
and filed a suit in the Court of Franconia for the dissolution of 
their marriage on the ground of incompatibility of temper. 
Gleig states that they *' lived together with good repute a whole 
year in Madras." They preceded Hastings to Calcutta ; and, 
shortly after his arrival there, he remarked in a letter, that she 
" has a good person, and has been very pretty, and wants only to 
be a greater mistress of the English language to prove that she 
has a great share of wit." It was not until 1775, or six years 
after the suit was filed, that the decree of divorce arrived in 
Calcutta. The Baron then returned to Germany, where, in the 
same year, he married a lady of noble birth, named Von Schad ; 
and the Baroness's marriage with the Governor-General was 
celebrated with great festivity in Calcutta. 

It has been assumed by some critics, who have not been 
animated by ill-will to Hastings, that his relations with the 
Baroness were not free from grave reproach ; but, in the absence 
of reliable evidence on the subject, and in view to the characters 


of both parties as revealed after their marriage, it may be 
reasonably inferred that this conclusion is erroneous. MacauUy 
was a severe judge of Hastings, yet he declared that "his love 
was characteristic of the man. Like his hatred, like his ambition, 
like all his passions, it was calm, deep, earnest, patient of delay, 
unconquerable by time." Hastings was very ambitious, and it 
could not have seemed to him conducive to his advancement to 
engfas^e, under the close observation of cadets and writers, in 
an intrigue with a married woman, first on a crowded East 
Indiaman, and then in the glare of publicity in a settlement 
where he occupied a prominent position, and which he desired to 
make the stepping-stone to higher things. He had a good 
character and good friends to lose. " I know too well," he 
remarked, in the letter to Sir George Colebroke, which is printed 
on a former page, " both the proneness which people in general 
have to misrepresent the actions of those in authority, and 
the too great readiness with people at home to credit implicitly 
such misrepresentation " ; and it was, he said, his constant aim 
to show, " by the general tenour of my conduct," that " I have 
the good of the Company at heart, and I neglect no part of my 
duty." Self-control and self-respect were guiding principles of 
his life ; and though, as events proved, he was capable of a 
romantic love that glowed without diminution for nearly fifty 
years, he cherished a high ideal of public duty and private 
responsibility which would have been outraged had he afforded 
ground for the moralist's censure. He made many friends, but 
he also made many enemies ; and, almost from the time that 
he left Madras until the termination of his trial — a period of 
twenty-three years — he was the object of the inveterate hostility 
of able men, who sought to blacken his character in order to 
accomplish his ruin. But, with suggestive unanimity, his foes 
refrained from alleging that he had deserved reprobation by 
his intimacy with the Baroness ; and it may be assumed, 
therefore, that they understood that that intimacy, however 
equivocal it may have seemed to some persons, was nothing 
worse than a platonic attachment which had not given occasion 
for local scandal. Sir Philip Francis, at any rate, would not 
have been deterred by any scruples from employing his genius 


for vituperation in holding up the moral weakness of Hastings 
to the scorn of the virtuous ; yet, with every temptation to 
gratify his rancorous hatred of his senior in Council, he remarked 
in a letter to his wife, after the marriage of Hastings, that " the 
lady is really an accomplished woman ; she behaves with perfect 
propriety in her new station, and deserves every mark of respect." 
Praise from Philip Francis was praise indeed. 

Lady Impey and Madame Imhoff had, according to Francis, 
been "bosom friends for a long time" pre\Mous to the marriage 
of the latter with Hastings ; but, for a twelvemonth immediately 
preceding that event, they had not been on speaking terms, 
though the Chief Justice continued to show Madame Imhoff 
much friendliness. Doubtless each party to the quarrel con- 
sidered that she was right to be angry, and that an apology was 
due from the other side. In those days, long ere " the hills " had 
been discovered, life in Calcutta during the greater part of the 
year must have been very monotonous and depressing for a 
lady ; and irritability of temper must have been induced by the 
high temperature, the want of useful employment, and the narrow 
ideas of such society as there was. Hastings gave an entertain- 
ment at Government House a week before his marriage, in view 
to bringing about a reconciliation between the two ladies ; but 
Lady Impey sent an excuse for her absence. Two days later 
Francis supped at the Chief Justice's, and " her Ladyship," he 
noted in his diary, " swears stoutly that Madame Imhoff shall 
pay her the first visit — an idea which I don't fail to encourage." 
Then, on the eve of the wedding, Madame Imhoff " sups at Lady 
Impey 's by way of submission." Three weeks after the marriage 
Mrs. Hastings was indisposed, and Francis recorded that " Lady 
Impey sits up with Mrs. Hastings, vulgo, toadeating." The next 
day Francis supped " at the Governor's," and " Mrs. Hastings 
very handsomely acknowledges my constant attentions to her." 

In 1780 Mrs. Hastings went for the benefit of her health to 
Chinsura, and the Governor-General soon desired her return 
to Calcutta. " I have all along wished it," he wrote to her, 
" though for reasons which I have mentioned, and for others 
which I have not, I opposed my own inclinations." He then 
sent her horse Beauty " to her. " Poor fellow ! It will be a 


kindness to him as well as to yourself — and to me too — if you 
will be content to walk him till you are both a little stronger. 
. . . I am well. As I am persuaded that your health depends 
on yourself, I do beseech you to be well too." A week later he 
wrote : '* I miss you most grievously," but " this letter will not 
add to your spirits, for it bears the symptoms of the total want 
of mine." Some days afterwards he urged her to rise early. 

The morning air — I mean the breeze which the rising sun sets in motion 
— will do you more good than all the rest of the day, and remember the 
Persian proverb which says, that the air of Paradise passes betwten a 
horse's ears to the rider that does not take too much of it, nor expose herself 
in the heat of the sun. I hear that you rode yesterday in the evening. I 
suppose you only mounted Beauty to try him ; for that is not the time of 
day for such an exercise. 

On the 14th July he remarked that the "onh^ news of con- 
sequence is, that it is determined that I am to remain as long 
as I choose, but with the same associates." But on the morning 
of the 17th he wrote to her as follows : — 

I have desired Sir John Day to inform you that I have had a meeting this 
morning with Mr. Francis, who has received a wound in his side, but I hope 
not dangerous. I shall know the state of it presently, and will write to you 
again He is at Belvedere, and Drs. Campbell and Francis are both gone 
to attend him there. I am well and unhurt. But you must be content to 
hear ih'xs ^ood from me. You cannot see me. I cannot leave Calcutta while 
Mr. Francis is in any danger. But I wish you to stay at Chinsura. 

Francis made a good recovery ; and as soon as he was in a 

position to do so, Hastings proceeded to Chinsura to meet his 

wife. He wrote : — 

If you set out on Friday, I will try to meet you. . . . Wrap yourself 
in shawls, and keep the wind as much as you can from you if this weather 
continues, when you come down. . . . May God bless you, and restore 
you safe, and in health to me, and as glad — or but half as glad— to see your 
husband, as he will be to regain possession of his Marian. 

The health of Mrs. Hastings began to fail in 17S3, after 
fourteen years' continuous residence in "the plains"; and, on 
the loth January, 1784, she embarked at Calcutta for England. 
Hastings was then nearly fifty-two, and she thirty-seven years of 
age. Writing to his friend, Sir Elijah Impey, who had recently 
returned home, Hastings said : " I have made a sacrifice of my 
own judgment, my ease, and possibly the comfort and happiness 



of my whole life, to the opinions of others." He found some 
consolation in writing the numerous letters to my beloved, 
my most amiable, my best Marian," which she preserved, and 
which are now in the British Museum.^ 

In the first of these he said : " Yesterday morning I held in 
my arms all that my heart holds dear ; and now she is separated 
from me as if she had no longer existence ! O ! my Marian, 
I am wretched. ... I love you more by far than life, for I 
would not live but in the hope of being once more united to 
you." This was from Culpee. On the following day he returned 
to Calcutta, and wrote that he had been relieved by much 
employment, " yet the instant that I am left to myself, and my 
ivory cot affords me no comfort, all my distresses rush back 
upon my thoughts, and present everything in the most gloomy 
prospect." He tried to indulge the imagination of seeing her ; 
of hearing her conversation ; of feeling her hand on his brow ; 
but this " momentary illusion instantly disappears, and shows me 
through the void all the delights of that entertainment whose 
image I seek, and which my fancy cannot recover — the beloved 
face, the animated and varied expression of features, the look 
of benevolence unspeakable, the sweet music of her tongue, and 
a thousand imperceptible graces that embellished her words, and 
gave them the power of expression exceeding the strongest 
efforts of the understanding." In a later letter he alluded to his 
having been indebted to his first illness " for such a proof of your 
affection as is almost without example " ; and added that, since 
that time he had not " perceived any alteration in that tender- 

^ These letters (and a large number of other papers connected with Hast- 
ings), after having passed through the hands of Southey, the younger 
Impey, and Gleig, were purchased by the British Museum in 1872, were 
referred to by Mr. Beveridge, in the Calcutta Review^ in 1877, and were 
largely quoted from eleven years later by Dr. H. E. Busteed, CLE., in his 
Qhd.xw'KVCig Echoes from Old Calcutta. " They are," as Macaulay remarked 
with especial reference to those alluded to by Gleig, " exceedingly character- 
istic. They are tender, and full of indication of esteem and confidence " ; 
and they show that Hastings loved his wife " with that love which is peculiar 
to men of strong minds, whose affection is not easily won or widely diffused." 
In this respect Hastings was a man after Macaulay's own heart, though 
Macaulay concentrated his own affection, not on a wife, but on a sister. 


ness which I before experienced, and which constituted the great 
and only blessing of my life." He took himself to task for his 
neglect of her, and declared that " were I present with you, my 
constant attentions, and the evidences which my love would 
produce every hour, and every instant of its reality," would 
prevent the effect of that neglect " on a heart so generous as 
yours." His conscience reproached him with "a long catalogue 
of offences," and every trivial incident of the kind referred to 
now appears with a black dye before me." But "it is not so 
in my remembrance of your behaviour, which I look back upon 
with love, respect, and admiration " ; and he begged her to recall 
" with what delight, my sweet Marian, you have known me 
frequently quit the scene of business, and run up to your apart- 
ment for the sake of deriving a few moments of relief from the 
looks, the smiles, and the sweet voice of my beloved." 

I have copied the three following letters almost in extenso 
from the clearly written originals, as they afford an excellent 
idea of the tone of the whole collection : — 

Calcutta, 21-$-/ January , 1784. 

My dearest Marian, — I have written three letters to you by Mrs. Sands, 
in the hope of her overtaking you at the Cape. I scarce wish you to receive 
them, for they were written under the influence of sonow, discontent, and 
despondency, and something Hke the consciousness of infinite and incom- 
parable folly in the recollection of the abundant pains which I have been 
taking to effect my own wretchedness. May the event prove it the reverse ! 
This resolution and its execution were very sudden, and I look back for the 
grounds of both, and scarce can trace them — none that justify one. I only 
recollect that in my enthusiasm to sacrifice every consideration that regarded 
myself to the preservation of your health, I thought only of the sacrifice, 
nor enquired of myself till it was too late whether it might not have been 
attained by easier means, and nearer our reach, or whether those which 
were chosen were not as likely to increase as to remedy the evil. 

But I ha\e already torn one sheet because I had half filled it with 
gloomy complaints. I will not afilict you with more, and it is unmanly. 

The events of my life since our separation have been few and uninter- 
esting. I left you early on the morning of the 10th, and passed a miserable 
day, with an aching heart and head. I saw the Atlas till half an hour past 
nine, and then lost sight of her for ever. I arrived in Calcutta on the after- 
noon of the 1 2th, having made my last sta^e in the Teelchcrra. I have 
since had my mind so constantly occupied that it has had little time for 
reflexion, and I have avoided sleeping in the afternoon, so that, thank God, 



I pass my nights in quiet, through weariness. I passed the three last days 
of the week at AUipoor, and shall continue to go there for the entertain- 
ment of my present guests, so long as they stay with me, on Saturdays and 
Sundays. When they leave me I bid adieu to Allipoor for ever, and I have 
actually advertised the sale of it in three lots, the old house and garden 
forming one, the new house and outhouses the second, and the paddock the 
third. Other schemes of retrenchment and economy I am forming, and they 
atTord me a pleasure in the prospect which is connected with them. . . . 

I do not expect the return of the pilot till the first week in February at 
the soonest, and shall reckon the delay of every day from the first as having 
proceeded from a necessity of detaining him to afford me better tidings than 
could have been written earlier by him. Yet I shall then hope to see your 
own handwriting, and, O God, grant it may give me the comfort of hearing 
that you were well, your health unimpaired, and your mind composed ! Let 
me have but reason to believe that you will pass the voyage exempt from 
sickness, and I will forgive myself for having assented to part with you. 
Assented ! It was my own act, and mine alone, and I felt a pride in urging 
it, because I owed to you every proof that I could give of my affection and 
disinterested regard for your safety and happiness, and what greater could 
I give, if these objects were promoted by it. 

He then alluded to his approaching tour to Lucknow, and 
continued : — 

I daily expect letters overland written after the receipt of mine by the 
Surprize Packet in which I declared my resolution of resigning my office, 
and desired that my successor might be appointed. I cannot foresee, but 
whatever it be, my resolution is fixed and unalterable, and it will be so con- 
cluded when it is known that you are gone before me. I have fulfilled every 
obligation which I owed to the Service, and done more than almost any 
other man against such inducements as I have had to restrain me would 
have done. But, my Marian, do not entertain hopes of improvement in our 
fortune. If your love for me is, as I am sure it is, superior to every other 
wish, you must be content to receive your husband again without other ex- 
pectations, poor in cash, but rich in credit (at least he hopes so) and in affec- 
tion unexampled. He is infinitely more concerned about his constitution than 
his wealth, trusting to the justice of his country for at least a competency, 
and to the good sense of his Marian for a sufficiency in whatever they may 
have for a subsistence. . . . 

O my Marian, what an age is yet to pass before I can be again blessed 
with you, and what have 1 not to dread in so long an interval ! May Heaven 
support and preserve you, and restore you to me in health and in affection 
all that my fondest hopes can require, and I will be contented, nor regret the 
many many days that I have lost in your absence ; and if ever I part from 
you again, 1 shall deserve to lose you, and be wretched for ever. Let but a 
few months pass and I will begin to count the time which shall yet remain, 
and please myself with its diminution. 


Continue, my sweet Marian, to love me, for in that hope and belief alone 
I live. Again, may the God of heaven bless and support you ! Remember 
me affectionately to your dear Mrs. Motte. Adieu. 

Your ever, ever affectionate, 


BuxER, 8M March, 1784. 
The cold is still almost piercing in the mornings. 

My beloved Marian, — Hearing that the Warren Hastings was likely to 
be detained, and desirous of taking my chance of conveying by her a second 
copy of the paper which I sent to you in my despatch from Patna, I sent 
away one by the post from yesterday's encampment to Thompson, to be put 
by him into the packet. The letter which I wrote to accompany it, I in the 
hurry of closing the packet left out ; but it was short, and of no conse- 
quence. Possibly this may arrive in time to go by the same despatch. The 
paper itself will show in what manner my mind was employed in the other- 
wise tedious hours of my journey ; and I believe that I owe to this occupa- 
tion of it that I suffered no fatigue or other inconvenience from so continued 
an exercise. How should I when my thoughts were all the time engrossed 
by the only object that I can dwell upon with delight, for a delight it is, 
though mixed with many very painful reflexions. It would hardly be under- 
stood by another, but you will know the truth of it, when I mention that I feel 
a higher gratification in brooding over the subject of the greatest unhappiness 
that has befallen me for years past than on such as in common estimation 
would be most pleasing to the mind. I must not let my thoughts wander, 
for I am at this instant surrounded by strangers, and others are gathering 
about me to whom I shall be compelled to give attention, and I must not 
lose this post, lest I should lose your ship. 

I am in perfect health. Since I crossed the Soan, I have made the last 
parts of three marches on horseback. This morning I used Mr. Eton's 
chariot out of civility. Suliman and the Arab are with me, both in excellent 
order, and I use them in turns. I ride about eight miles in a morning, and 
find great benefit in it. In a word I flatter myself that this journey from 
which I dreaded the worst effects has effectually restored my constitution. 
You would be astonished to see me. . . . 

I have been joined by Ally Ibrahim Cawn and Beneram Pundit, whom you 
know that I reckon among my first friends. To the first I am indebted for 
having raised my character and made it known to every quarter of India 
by his wise administration of the City of Benares. Poor Cleveland ! Every 
tongue through Bengal and Behar is loud in his praises, and in expressions 
of regret for his loss. I hope to reach Benares in five days more, and 
probably this is the last letter that you can receive from me by the sh.ips of 
this season. It will aflford you the satisfaction of knowing that I am well, 
and I must add for confirmation of it, in better health than I have known 
for some years past. What a ch mge 1 I crawled from the shore to Crofter's 
Bungalow at Sooksangur, my strength and breath failed me, and my knees 
shook under me. At this moment I think myself as stout as any one of 



the party. I ought to conclude here, for I can say nothing more acceptable, 
except that I love you more than my hfe, or even than my hopes of life 

Adieu, my Heart's beloved ! May the God of Heaven bless and protect 
you ! Amen. 


Allipoor, Suniay the ^tli of December^ 1784. 
My beloved Marian, — I am now again reading your most delightful 
though painful letter, and shall employ the afternoon in finishing the per- 
usal of it. I have enclosed it in a case, and I keep it in my private box, 
which I always carry with me, both for privacy, and for the ready means of 
looking into it, when I can command the leisure and solitude which can fit 
me for it. These advantages I never possess. The afternoons indeed are 
always my own ; but since my return to Calcutta I have never been able to 
sit up after dinner. This day and yesterday I am better and stouter than I 
have been, which I ascribe partly to the change of weather, and partly to 
the renewal of my morning rides and cold water. But what a wretch I am 
to talk of myself, when my Marian is before me ! Yes, my lovely Marian, 
you are before me. Your delightful looks, your enchanting voice, even 
your touch — (O God ! once more make them substantially mine !) — succes- 
sively take possession of my senses as I read the animated picture of your 
mind, its sentiments and its sufferings. I can bear the description now. It 
racked my feelings, and made me almost feverish, when I first read it, be- 
cause my passions were wholly occupied by their present sympathy, and I 
knew not what was to follow. I now know all, and bless many of the cruel 
symptoms which gave me pain when I read of them. All ? No ! not all. 
I only know that you departed from St. Helena on the 15th of May in per- 
fect health, and in the full assurance of being in a state which might in its 
event make me most truly the happiest of all mankind. But in the un- 
known interval which has followed what may not have happened to make 
me the most wretched. A length yet remaining of agitation on the great 
ocean ; a total change of climate approaching ; perhaps tempest, I will not 
imagine worse ; the fatigue of landing, of travelling seventy long miles in a 
condition of body requiring ease and repose even in the most healthy, the 
various agitations of mind, and consequent affections of the body on your 
arrival in London, reiterated with every dear connection, and with every 
friend that approaches to bid you welcome ; how will your tender frame 
bear all this? Yet it has borne more, and I thank God that you will have 
arrived in London at a season when all the world is out of town, and will 
have found a house furnished and completely fitted for your reception. I 
will also believe — for my vast love for you has made me superstitious — that 
your virtues will secure to you a better destiny. I will believe that I am 
myself in the course of good fortune ; for I can scarce trace my life for 
some years back, even to the greatest disappointments of it, but to be con- 
vinced that they led to some good which made me rejoice that they had be- 
fallen me. I will believe that I am now a blessed being, and most fervently 


pray that I may die, though instantly, in that belief, if the reverse of this 
has actually come to pass. . . . You will receive in detachments a very 
close and connected series of my adventures, wonderfully unimportant as 
they would appear to any reader but her to whom they are addressed, and as 
connected and faithful a display of the mind which wrote them. How will 
it grieve me if you should lose any of them I — except the first, for those, I 
remember, were peevish, desponding, and unmanly. 

The next remark which strikes me in your letter, and for which I feel a 
sentiment greatly resembling that of thanksgiving, is the wonderful simili- 
tude between your thoughts and mine. While I read yours, I think I am 
reading my own, for their original impulse still remains unvaried through all 
its productive movements, though I cannot remember a single expression 
that I have written. A few, perhaps, only are retained in their original ex- 
pression by being clothed with a poetical dress ; but my poetry, mean as it 
may be, was never indebted to fancy, and derives its inspiration but from 
one source, which is the same as that which furnished the more expressive, 
but not more genuine, thoughts of your letter. I could give you extracts from 
N'ours which require but rhyme and measure to make them exactly my own. 
I will not repeat them. Yet I maybe permitted to borrow one, and one only, 
which, I am sure, comes as nearly to my own feelings as it parted from you. 
" My mind often and often drew a picture of my state when bereft of all that 
was dearer to her than life. The shade it cast was dark and st7-o?t<{,h\i\. still / 
could see at a distance a (glimmering ray^ which, like the sun after a long ab- 
sence, cheered and warmed my drooping spirits ; but, alas I where are they ? 
What an obscure and di'eary way have I yet to travel till my eyes again be- 
hold that light which gives me life I " I am sure you will easily recollect the 
passage which corresponds with this, and in one part almost literally. My 
Marian, it was your genius which mixed itself with mine and dictated to me. 
I am sure that I felt it. At some time or other I will prove to you that there 
is not in all that production one idea or image which was not also your own, 
perhaps borrowed by sympathy from you. Let this be to you a demonstra- 
tion of the warmth of my affection, as I trust to it for the proof — but do I 
want one?— of yours. 

A letter from his wife, dated St. Helena, 15th May, reached 
the Governor-General at Benares on the 30th September, and 
gave him great delight. " I am, indeed," he wrote to her in 
reply, on the following day, " I am, indeed, a fortunate man, and 
am tempted to adopt the term even to superstition ; and no 
wonder, for the belief has seized others long since, and univer- 
sally." He congratulates himself on the fact that her letter " is 
written in the language of cheerfulness and of affection. . . . 
I am already happy ; for as God is my witness that I prefer 
your happiness to my own, I feel the measure of my present joy 
full. 1 have food enough for my heart to feast on for more than 



a week to come. ... I have but one wish remaining (yes, one 
more), viz., to be able to leave the stage of active life while my 
fortune is in the zenith of its prosperity, and while I have a con- 
stitution yet reparable. . . . May the God whose goodness I 
have so wonderfully experienced bless you with health, safety, 
and comfort, and me with the re-possession of my sweet Marian ! 
Amen ! Amen ! Amen ! I never loved you so much as I do at 
this instant." A week afterwards he added a postscript of a 
most tender nature, and said, in conclusion, " I shall hasten to 
Calcutta, and, if possible, leave it again before the end of this 
year. Adieu, my most beloved ! Adieu ! " Other love-letters 
have been written in Government House, Calcutta, including 
those which the lonely Earl of Minto addressed, during the 
course of his seven years' exile, to his beloved Countess in Scot- 
land (who was to see him alive no more, as he died immediately 
after returning from India, when travelling from London to meet 
her at Minto Castle) ; but the billets doiLX of the first Governor- 
General of India are probably unique 

Mrs. Hastings reached England after a long voyage,^ and, a 
fortnight after her arrival, she was presented by Lady Weymouth 
to King George the Third and Queen Charlotte. Two more 
weeks passed, and she was again received by their Majesties ; 
and, according to a letter that was written to Hastings by his 
agent, Major Scott, who escorted her on this occasion, she " met 
with still greater marks of attention, if possible." After talking 
some time to Mrs. Hastings, the amiable Queen turned to 
Major Scott, and said : " I am very glad to observe that Mrs. 
Hastings is so much recovered ; she looks infinitely better than 
when I saw her a fortnight ago, and I hope this country will 

^ There is a list in the British Museum of " prohil3ited and other articles 
detained in the Baggage Warehouse, belonging to Mrs. Hastings, chargeable 
with duty." It includes silk dresses ; silk handkerchiefs ; gold and silver 
gauze curtains : squirrel skins ; a tortoise-shell dressing box, inlaid with 
ivory and silver ; a bedstead, plated with silver ; part of an ivory bedstead, 
" gilt with gold " ; an ivory armchair inlaid with gold, with velvet seat em- 
broidered with gold, and an ivory stool ; a second ivory armchair with a stool; 
two ivory armchairs and stands ; and one smoking utensil of silver [a 
hookah?] weighing forty-eight ounces. 


soon restore her to perfect health." In reply to his wife's letter 

describing her reception in England, Hastings wrote : — 

The attentions shown to you on your arrival, though what I expected, 
make no small part of my rejoicing. Something might at the first have 
been yielded to you on my account ; more, surely, to your character, which 
had preceded you, and your character is marked with virtues, all original, 
and such as would naturally excite respect ; but I am certain that they who 
were your first visitors would have wished to repeat thtir visits early, and 
stimulate others with the same desire to see you. 


He subsequently described her appearance in an "epigram 
borrowed from the French " : — 

Flowers, Ribbands, Lappets. Feathers shaking. 
And Cap that cost three weeks in making, 
Pearls all in rows, and Pearls in drops. 
And brilliant Pins set thick as hops. 
Gay gown and Stomacher so fine, 
And Petticoat of clouds divine, 

With other silken things, and lac'd things ! 
Combin'd ye flutter forth, to shew 
Your gaudy charms to public view : 
Admiring swains with rapture eye 
The Pageant, as it moves, and die : 
And people call you Mrs. Hastings. 

The friendliness of the Queen to a divorcee was regretted by 
Colonel P^airly and Captain Price, two of the King's equerries, 



and defended by Mrs. Schwellenberg, the Chief Keeper, and 
Miss Fanny Burney, the Assistant Keeper of the Queen's robes. 
After a heated discussion on the subject at Windsor, Miss Bur- 
ney noted in her diary : " I felt so sorry that poor Mrs. Hastings, 
whom I beheve to be a most injured woman, should be so ill- 
defended, even by her most zealous friend, that I compelled 
myself to the exertion of coming forward in her behalf myself." 
She accordingly represented to the equerries that in England "a 
divorce could only take place upon misconduct," whereas in 
Germany " a divorce from misconduct prohibited a second 
marriage, which could only be permitted where the divorce was 
the mere effect of disagreement from dissimilar tempers." The 
equerries said that they had never heard this before, and Colonel 
Fairly added, that " it ought to be made known, both for the 
sake of Mrs. Hastings, and because she has been received at 
Court, which gave everybody the greatest surprise, and me, in 
my ignorance, the greatest concern on account of the Queen." 
Mrs. Schwellenberg confirmed her colleague's arguments, little 
dreaming that, in consequence of her habitual petulance towards 
that observant little lady, a great historian would, nearly sixty 
years afterwards, heap a variety of contumelious epithets on her 
head, and, in one of his essays, hand her down to posterity as 
" an old hag from Germany," of " mean understanding," of 
" insolent manners," of " savage temper, exasperated by disease," 
a " hateful old maid," " rude," " peevish," " unable to conduct 
herself with common decency," an *' execrable old woman," a 
" German crone," an " old fury," who " raged like a cat," and 
"raved like a maniac." 

The Queen was so much interested in Mrs. Hastings that she 
recommended her son, Charles Imhoff, to the notice of the 
Prince of Waldeck, who thereupon had him trained as a soldier. 
Some years later Hastings endeavoured to obtain a staff appoint- 
ment for Imhoff in Bengal ; and, when the Marquis of Cornwallis 
was about to leave England to assume the office of Governor- 
General, Hastings begged him to make Imhoff his aide-de-camp, 
or to " nominate him to any other staff appointment which he 
can hold consistently with his present rank." He -proceeded to 
say : — 


Lieutenant-Colonel Imhoff is my son-in-law, and deservedly possesses as 
large a portion of my affection as I could feel for a son of my own blood. 
To no other person living would I allow the claim which has drawn from me 
this importunity. Of the requisites which might entitle him to your Lord- 
ship's protection, I beg leave to say that he has received the rudiments of his 
profession in the strict service of Germany, that he has been honoured with 
the express assurances or indications from every commanding officer to 
whose regiment he has been attached in this country of their approbation of 
his conduct ; and that he is a man of ingenuous manners, and of the strictest 
honour and integrity. 

Hastings added in a postscript : — 

The foreign service to which I have alluded as having occupied an early 
part of Colonel Imhoft's life was that of the Prince of Waldeck, who has be- 
stowed upon him the most authentic testimony that could be afforded of 
Colonel Imhoff 's merits, in a letter written to his mother by his Highness, in 
his own hand, and in another to the Queen, who had graciously recom- 
mended him to the Prince ; and he has since distinguished him by the most 
flattering personal kindnesses. 

Lord Cornwallis was unable to comply with Hastings' 

On the 1 6th January, 1797, Hastings wrote from Daylesford 
to Charles Imhoff, who was staying at the time at Hastings 
House," in Park Lane : — 

Though a letter received this morning from Charlotte gives me the 
pleasing expectation of seeing you in a very few days at this place, I cannot 
deny myself the pleasure of writing to you, to thank you for your New Year's 
wishes, which are (I can truly assure you) as welcome on the i6th as if they 
had been in form announced and received on the first of the month ; on 
which day I hope you and your dear Charlotte were sensible of the efficacy 
of those which were offered up most fervently. 

Hastings expressed on the loth May, 1797, to Charles Imhoff 
the anxiety that Mrs. Hastings felt respecting her daughter-in- 
law's health, and urged him to write at once in order " to satisfy 
her (and why should I not say Jis, for I too am interested, 
though not equally, in the knowledge ?) upon the point. I have 
used a term of qualification, which I might perhaps with truth 
revoke, and say that my interest in this point is equal to hers. 
In whatever regards you, my dear Charles, or your excellent and 
amiable wife, I have a concern of my own, and another besides 
attached to the pleasure, or pain, which it may give to another 
excellent and amiable wife." Mrs. Hastings was devoted to her 



son and daughter-in-law ; and, notwithstanding a heavy loss, 
about the year 1796, by the failure of a Dutch firm in the City, 
she was in a position to make gifts to the former amounting to 
i;40,ooo, and to settle ^10,000 on the latter. " This," she wrote, 
"will enable him to live very comfortably with his beloved 
Charlotte, and my mind will be easy respecting my beloved 
children. Whatever my fate may be, let me see my children 
happy and comfortable." 

On the 28th July, 1806, Mr. J. P. Ruhl, Clerk in Chancery to 
the Chapteral Order of St. Joachim, apprised Hastings of the 
election of his stepson to that Order, and that he was certain 
the Chapter would be happy to confer the same honour upon 
himself. Hastings acknowledged Mr. Ruhl's letter, and said : — 

I am yet more thankful for the intimation which you have been pleased 
to give me of the disposition which they, the Capitulars, entertained to confer 
the same degree upon me as they had done upon Colonel Imhoff. I am 
gratified in the extreme by this declaration, but 1 am mortified at the same 
time that I cannot avail myself of it. In my present undignified condition 
of life, <ifter having passed many years of it in the public service, my accept- 
ance of any title of honour from a foreign state might be liable to injurious 

In another letter addressed to Mr. G. Hansen and Mr. J. P. 
Ruhl, the Commissioners of the Order, Hastings expressed his 
gratitude for the dignity that had been conferred " on a person 
whom you considered, as he is, most deservedly dear to me " : — 

The obligation at this moment presses upon me with a stronger impulse, 
and I yield to it with pleasure, , . . having just received the informa- 
tion, long and anxiously expected, that the last sanction which was necessary 
to confirm the act of the Chapter of St. Joachim . . . has actually taken 
place, the King having been graciously pleased to grant unto Lieutenant- 
Colonel Imhoff his royal license and permission to receive and wear the 
ensigns of the illustrious Order of St. Joachim, and to order the same to 
be registered in the College of Arms. 

King George the Third not only permitted Imhoff — who had 
now received a commission in the British army — to accept the 
insignia and rank of a Knight Commander of the Order of St. 
Joachim, but granted him at the same time leave to assume, in 
virtue of that foreign decoration, the titular distinction of a 
Knight in England. This was peculiarly gratifying to Hastings ; 



and he was so pleased by the manner in which Mr. Hansen and 
Mr. Ruhl had discharged their duties that he invited them to 
pay him a visit at Daylesford. He addressed the invitation to 
the former, who was residing on the Continent. He said : — 

You have inspired me with the desire of improving the valuable ac- 
quisition of your acquaintance. I am too far advanced in life to hope for an 
opportunity to seek it abroad ; but chance, business, or desire of revisiting- 
the scenes of your early pleasures, and not the least endeared of your con- 
nections, may draw you once more to this country. In that case I should 
esteem it a happiness to be allowed the honour of receiving you as my guest. 
The lady of the house is already prepared, with sentiments of esteem and 
acknowledgments similar to my own, to offer you the most friendly welcome. 
Permit me. Sir, through yau, to niake the same tender to Mr. Ruhl. 




As the private life of Warren Hastings was embittered for 
many a year by a phenomenal enmity that was at the root of 
his impeachment, it is necessary to refer at some length to the 
man who, in the effort to accomplish his destruction, was instru- 
mental in conferring immortality upon, and in securing the 
sympathy of posterity for his would-be victim. That man was 
Philip Francis, the son of a clergyman at Dublin, where he was 
born in 1740. He accompanied his father to London in 175 1 ; 
was placed at St. Paul's School, where, aided still by his father, 
he became a good classic. At the age of sixteen he entered the 
office of the Secretary of State as a junior clerk. He worked 
hard, was discreet, and made himself so useful that he was 
attached, in 1758, to the British expedition against Cherbourg, 
and, in 1760, to the British Embassy to Portugal. He then 
settled down once more to the routine work of a Government 
office in London, gave proof of talent, won the respect of his 
superiors, and slowly mounted the ladder of promotion, until, 
at length, he became Chief Clerk at the War Office. Meanwhile 
he had drifted into pamphleteering, and had learnt, it is be- 
lieved, to make a ferocious use of the Press, notwithstanding 
that he is credited with the authorship of a letter to the Public 
Advertiser, in which the writer protested against the liberty of 
the Press being " prostituted to the meanest acrimony, scurrility, 
and contemptible ribaldry, to serve the infamous and pernicious 
purposes of envy, the child of ambition, and of detraction, the 
concomitant of envy." He is now generally regarded as the 
author of the Letters of Junius, which " exercised " — accord- 
ing to Lord Campbell in his Life of Lord Mansfield — "a tyranny 
of which we can form little conception, living in an age when 




the Press is more decorous, and we are able by law to repress 
its excesses." They were attributed from time to time to 
thirty-seven more or less notable men, including Francis and 
Burke, and at first the preponderance of opinion pointed to the 
latter. Francis was well aware that a discovery of the author- 
ship would mean social ostracism and political ruin to the 
author, and he was not above the pretence of accepting the 
current suspicion that Burke was that author, in order, appar- 
enth', that he might the better divert suspicion from himself 
Burke repudiated the authorship, and in November, 1771, he 
wrote to the Honourable Charles Townsend : " I have, I dare- 
say, to nine-tenths of my acquaintance denied my being the 
author of Jiinms, or having any knowledge of the author, as 
often as the thing was mentioned, whether in jest or earnest, 
in style of disapprobation or compliment. I now give you my 
word and honour that I know not the author of that paper, and 
I authorise you to say so." But a lie often dies hard, and Burke 
may have suffered much from the difficulty he experienced in 
proving a negative. 

Francis wrote in June, 1770, to his brother-in-law, Alexander 
Macrabie, who subsequently accompanied him to India in the 
capacity of Private Secretary, and for whom he entertained 
affection: "Junius is not known, and that circumstance is 
perhaps as curious as any of his writings. I have always 
suspected Burke, but whoever he is it is impossible he can ever 
discover himself The offence he has given to His Majesty and 
. . . is more than any private man could support ; he would 
soon be crushed." Francis's father never suspected the author- 
ship of the letters, for he once enquired of his son : " Who is 
this devil, Junius, or rather legion of devils?" It need hardly 
be said that Francis did not satisfy his curiosity. 

Mr. John Taylor, the author of Junius Identified, declared 
that "in all his researches he had not" met with one thought, 
one fact, one word which in the slightest degree impeded the 
course of the demonstration "that Francis was 'Junius.'" 
Joseph Parkes and Herman Merivale, in their Memoirs of Sir 
Philip Francis, endorsed this conclusion, and the latter said that 
he had not discovered, during his examination of the mass of 



Francis's papers submitted to him, "a single record, or a single 
passage, which raises (by comparison of dates, sentiments, or 
other circumstances) the slightest improbability against the 
current supposition." Macaulay considered that the identifi- 
cation of Francis was established, and regarded him as a man 
who was " prone to malevolence," and also to the " error of 
mistaking his malevolence for public virtue." Leslie Stephen 
remarks that " it would be impossible to describe the character 
of Junius except in terms strikingly applicable to Francis " ; and 
" there may have been two such men whose careers coincided 
during Francis's most vigorous period, but it seems more pro- 
bable that there was only one." Malleson is convinced that 
" none but Francis could have been the parallel of Junius." 

Francis's advancement was not proportionate to his ex- 
pectations, and, while still comparatively young, he was a 
disappointed and a soured man. He was conscious of the 
possession of remarkable powers that he had diligently culti- 
vated, but for which he could find no adequate employment 
in London. His official salary was small, and though it was 
supplemented by perquisites that, added to the precarious fruits 
of gambling, and of a little dabbling on the Stock Exchange, 
enabled him to make both ends meet, he lived in a very quiet 
way, in a house none too spacious for his large family. He had 
agreeable manners ; he was witty, well informed, and good- 
looking. He had great self-control, and he bore himself at home 
and abroad so prudently that for a long time no relative or 
friend suspected that he was the most ruthless satirist of the age. 
He served under highly placed officials who were endowed with 
mediocre abilities, and by accommodating himself as a subor- 
dinate to their weaknesses, and by the exercise of great industry 
and ability in helping them in the discharge of their duties, 
he gained their confidence, and unobtrusively promoted their 
success. He found little sympathy among his associates for his 
advanced views about the rights of subjects and the responsi- 
bilities of Kings, Ministers, and Judges ; but, however extravagant 
may have been some of his opinions, he was strongly imbued 
with public spirit It was galling to a man of his talent to find 
the avenues to promotion in the public service blocked by 



members of the aristocracy and their friends. He was too 
cautious to wear his heart on his sleeve ; but there is every 
reason to believe that he vented his spleen by anonymous con- 
tributions to the Press. 

In 1773 he was First Clerk in the War Office, and imagining 
that he had been slighted by Lord Harrington, the War 
Secretary, he resigned, and revenged himself by letters in the 
papers, in which " all his dignity, all his power of keen, anato- 
mising sarcasm, all his caustic elegance of language" deserted 
him, and he was guilty of assailing Lord Harrington with a 
" vulgar ferocity as discreditable," continues Merivale, " to the 
writer's intellectual power as to his self-respect and manliness 
of character." In one of his published letters Francis said • 

Next to the Duke of Grafton, I verily believe that the blackest 
heart in the kingdom belongs to Lord Harrington." For all 
this Francis, being out of employ in the following year, and 
with poverty staring him in the face, begged Lord Barring- 
ton to use his influence to obtain for him the appointment of 
member of the new Council of India that was being constituted 
under Lord North's Act for the better government of that 
country. The appointment, though the large salary of ;^ 10,000 
a year was attached to it, had been declined by Burke and 
others, and was almost going a-begging. Lord Barrington com- 
plied, and, according to an autobiographical fragment found 
among Francis's papers, " as soon as I had explained everything 
to him, he wrote the handsomest and strongest letter imaginable 
in my favour to Lord North. Other interests contributed, but 
I owe my success to Lord Barrington." This proves how well 
Francis succeeded in guarding the secret of his contributions to 
the Press. He kept up appearances so well that not onl}- did 
Lord Barrington regard him with much respect, but even the 
King remarked in a letter to Lord North that " Mr. Francis is 
allowed to be a man of talents." On his return from India 
Francis became an intimate friend of Lord Barrington, and 
often accepted his hospitality. Lord Barrington died in 1793, 
little suspecting how unworthy Francis was of his esteem. 

Francis thus sprang, at the age of thirty-four, from im- 
pecuniosity and insignificance in England to a position of great 



prominence and activity in India ; and his views of life should 
have been modified by his unexpected good fortune. But he 
took out with him to India the same heart that had cherished so 
many evil feelings since his youth, and an inordinate self-con- 
sciousness. It was not surprising that he was prejudiced against 
Hastings from the first. There is some reason to suppose that 
this prejudice commenced during his visit to Lord Clive, at 
Walcot, in Shropshire, a few weeks after his appointment ; for 
the mind of the hero of Plassey was at the time warped by the 
prejudices of which he himself was the object at Westminster. 
Apart from this, there was the fact that Francis arrived in 
Calcutta imbued with the not unusual contempt of home-trained 
men for public functionaries in India, who have acquired their 
knowledge of public affairs locally. Francis had not been on 
terms of private intimacy, but he had worked with many men 
of mark in England, and had acquired a varied knowledge 
of the administration of Departments. He was well read, 
especially in constitutional history and biography ; he was an 
excellent Latin, Greek, and French scholar ; and he had travelled 
in Portugal, France, Germany, and Italy. Hastings had been 
twenty years, in all, in India when Francis landed as one of the 
new Council that was to hold him in check. He was now con- 
stituted Governor-General, and he was in a mood to expect 
from everybody full recognition of the fact He had risen from 
small beginnings by his own ability ; but his experience was 
almost exclusively Indian, and he may have been in the habit 
of mistaking the cackle of Calcutta for " the murmur of the 
world." Existence from the susceptible days of youth to the 
prime of life in an atmosphere of Oriental obsequiousness is 
calculated to give an European an idea of his own im.portance 
and essentiality that is not usually shared by his countrymen 
on his return home. Hastings was a master of his own work, 
and he may have been tempted to regard with something like 
contempt the three locally inexperienced men who were thrust 
upon him as his counsellors. He did not, probably, feel the 
need of advice ; and he could not but have doubted their com- 
petency to advise him. They soon showed that they wished to 
make up for their inexperience by being " wise in their own 


conceit," and by being meddlesome with, and suspicious of the 
expert at the helm. If Francis had been an amiable or a just 
man, he might have met Hastings in a conciliatory manner, and 
become his able ally ; and Hastings then would not have been 
immortalised by Francis's impeachment. But there was little 
in common between the two men. 

It has been said that Francis was associated in the new Coun- 
cil of the Governor-General with General Clavering,^ Colonel 
Monson, and Mr. Barvvell. The last-named gentleman, who was 
in Calcutta when he was appointed, was an experienced Civil 
Servant of the Company's who cherished a profound respect for 
Hastings, and was equipped with the knowledge necessary to his 
new position. But Clavering and Monson were gallant soldiers, 
and nothing more. The former had seen active service in the 
West Indies, and had exercised some influence over the supple 
minds of certain members of Parliament. Hence Lord North 
regarded him as a fit and proper person to send to India, The 
place suited the man ; but whether the man suited the place, or 
whether the public service might suffer by the presence of the 
man in the place, was a matter that Lord North did not con- 
sider that his duty to his Sovereign and his country demanded 
that he should trouble himself about. Whatever may have been 
his professional merits, Clavering was a narrow-minded, ill- 
informed, and irascible gentleman, who was bound to be a 
nuisance in Council. Monson resembled him in attainments 
and temperament, but he had this advantage, that he had seen 
some service in Southern India. They were both as clay in the 

^ General Sir John Clavering, K.B., was the third son of Sir James Claver- 
ing, of Greencroft, Durham. He was born in 1722, and he married the 
Lady Diana, second daughter of the first Earl of Delawarr. He entered the 
Army in the Coldstream Guards ; and in 1759 he served with marked dis- 
tinction at the capture of Guadeloupe. He was then appointed Aide-de- 
camp to the King. In 1772 he became Colonel of the 52nd Foot, and in 1776 
he was created a Knight of the Bath. He attained the rank of Lieutenant- 
General in 1770. In 1773 he was appointed to the command of the Bengal 
Army, with a seat in the new Council in Bengal, and a salary of £\opoo a 
year. In 1777 he died in Calcutta, aged fifty-five. He was "an honest, 
straightforward man, of passionate disposition, and mediocre abilities." (See 
Die. of National Biot^.) 



hands of Francis during the weary voyage with him round the 
Cape ; and they ranged themselves on his side long ere they 
arrived at the land where, as it proved, Monson ^ was to die in 
two, and Clavering in three years after they assumed office. 

Francis embarked on the 1st April, 1774, in the AsJiburnhain^ 
with General and Lady Diana Clavering, the three Misses Claver- 
ing, Colonel and Lady Anne Monson, Colonel Thornton, Mr. 
Macrabie, and seven others. The Anson sailed at the same time, 
carrying with her Sir Elijah Impey, Mr. Hyde, Mr. Chambers, 
and Mr. Lemaistre, the newly appointed judges of the Supreme 
Court of Calcutta, and Lady Impey. The Anson kept ahead all 
the way, and reached and left Madras before the arrival of the 
other vessel. " Nothing could exceed " the " marks of honour 
and respect " that were shewn — according to Macrabie — to 
Francis and his colleagues by the authorities of Fort St. George. 
Mr. Alexander Wynch was then Governor, but what Francis 
thought of him is not recorded. Letters of welcome to India 
from Hastings were received at Madras by some of the party. 
He assured Monson that he would " seek to cultivate both your 
friendship and confidence, as well from personal prepossession 
as from the conviction of the necessity of such a mutual under- 
standing for the conduct of the great and difficult affairs in 
which we have been joined." Little dreaming, perhaps, that he 
was addressing the author of Jnnins, Hastings conveyed to 

^ Colonel the Hon. George Monson, third son of the first Lord Monson, 
was born in 1730, and, like Hastings, was educated at Westminster School, 
under Dr. Nicholls. He was appointed an Ensign in the ist Foot Guards in 
1760 ; was elected a member for Lincoln in 1754, and retained his seat in 
Parliament until 1768. In 1756 he was appointed a Groom of the Bed- 
chamber of the Prince of Wales, and he retained that post when the Prince 
ascended the throne as George III. He exxhanged from the Guards into 
Draper's Regiment, proceeded to India in 1758, and served with distinction 
as second in command at the siege and capture of Pondicherry in 1760. 
He also distinguished himself at the siege of Manilla in 1762. He returned 
to England in 1764, and in 1769 became full Colonel. In 1774 he was ap- 
pointed a member of the Council in Bengal, and sailed to India accompanied 
by his wife, Lady Anne, daughter of Henry Vane, Earl of Darlington, and 
great-granddaughter of Charles II. He resigned his seat in Council on 
account of ill-health in 1776, and died the same month in Calcutta, aged 
forty-six. (See Die. of National Biog.) 


Francis his cordial congratulations on his appointment, and pro- 
ceeded to say : " I received with particular pleasure a letter 
from General Clavering, wherein he unites with his own inten- 
tions an assurance of your disposition to co-operate in measures 
of public utility." This would seem to show that, while Claver- 
ing did, Francis did not write to Hastings during the nine 
months that intervened between the date of his appointment 
and that of his embarkation. " My hopes and wishes," Hastings 
proceeded to say, " are equally sanguine, to concur heartily in 
such measures as will most fully answer the intention of your 
appointment, and reflect honour on our councils. I shall im- 
patiently expect your arrival here, both from the personal 
satisfaction that I propose to myself from it, and the desire 
of entering upon the several public measures which may be 
necessary for the discharge of the great trust confided to our 
joint direction." 

Calcutta was reached on the 19th October, or in a little more 
than six months from England. Francis and his colleagues 
expected to have been received with more striking marks of 
distinction than Hastings prepared ; but it was always main- 
tained by Hastings that he did not fail in his duty, or in official 
courtesy on this occasio-n. He knew well enough that he would 
have to reckon with these new colleagues as possible adversaries 
in the future. He may have dissented from the idea that he 
needed their control ; but he was too mature an official, and too 
alive to his own dignity, to put upon them a gratuitous affront 
on their reaching their destination. Most probably, therefore, 
the new arrivals had developed during their long voyage an 
overweening idea of their own importance, coupled with an in- 
adequate recognition of Hastings' rights. They were prejudiced 
against him from the date of their appointment, and prejudice 
is easily nourished. Francis landed with the general conviction 
in his mind that Hastings was the representative of a pernicious 
system of administration, and the embodiment of official vices. 
He prejudged and precondemned him, in the evil fashion of 
Junius ; and everything that Hastings did, or said, was attributed 
to low motives that should be habitually resisted. 

It is not necessary to give a sketch of the incidents of Francis's 



conflict with Hastings. Suffice it to say that he systematically 
plotted his destruction, and cherished the hope of being his suc- 
cessor. He had not been in India five months before he alleged, 
in a letter to Lord North, the Prime Minister, that " without 
denying" the Governor-General "some little talents of the 
third or fourth order, we were as much deceived with regard to 
his abilities and judgment as to his other qualifications." There 
is no reason to suppose that at any moment Francis was inclined 
to think well of Hastings, yet he declared to Lord North that 
*' I look back to my own prepossessions in his favour as to a 
sort of delirium, from which he himself has recovered me." He 
chuckled over what he regarded as the fact that " the honours 
which were intended " for Hastings had been delayed in con- 
sequence of the abatement of the excessive admiration and 
esteem " which Lord North at one time professed for the 
Governor-General ; and he soon wrote to a friend in London 
that, " I am now, I think, on the road to the government of 
Bengal, which I believe is the first situation in the world attain- 
able by a subject. I will not baulk my future." He had leapt 
from the position of an ex-clerk of the War Office to that of 
a member of the Governor-General's Council ; but his head was 
turned by his good fortune, and he failed to see the personal 
application of the remark which he intended as a sneer against 
Hastings, that " men suddenly raised to arbitrary power from 
low stations are seldom improved by it." High station did not 
improve him, for it increased his arrogance and malevolence 
while it fanned his ambition. Hastings had attained eminence 
by slow advancement up the official ladder, and the improve- 
ment on the way of his natural gifts ; but he stopped Francis's 
way. The difficulties and dangers of Hastings' position were 
ample without their being supplemented by the remorseless 
enmity of Francis, and it is marvellous that he succeeded as well 
as he did in maintaining the honour of England, and promoting 
the prosperity of the Company. Yet Hastings, according to 
Francis, had " resided so long in Bengal that in many respects 
he may be considered as a native." He " has all the craft of 
a Bengalee," united with vanity and impatience of contradiction. 
He was capable of deceiving " any man unacquainted with his 


arts, or less proficient in hypocrisy than himself." His first 
object is money," but he is not " strictly avaricious ; rapacity, 
not avarice, is the general characteristic of our people in India." 

Francis did not confine his hatred to Hastings, but it extended 
to all Hastings' friends or allies. As Junius, he is believed to 
have held up many notable men in England to public scorn as 
monuments of depravity ; yet, in a private memorandum, he 
stated that " there are no such men in Europe as Hastings, 
George Vansittart, and Barwell." The last-named possessed, ac- 
cording to Francis, "all the bad qualities common to this climate 
and country, of which he is in every sense a native." He " is 
rapacious without industry, and ambitious without an exertion 
of his faculties, or steady application to affairs" ; he ''will do 
whatever can be done by bribery and intrigue " ; his mind is 
unequal to any serious constant occupation, except gaming, in 
which alone he is indefatigable." Francis accused Sir Eyre 
Coote of " settling the most infamous and atrocious measures in 
perfect conjunction with Hastings and Barwell," and " I will not 
content myself with saying I never knew, but upon my soul I 
never heard of so abandoned a scoundrel. It is a character to 
which your English ideas of dirt and meanness do not reach." 
Sir Hector Munro was another military man for whom Francis 
entertained the greatest contempt : " The character of the man 
is reprobated and abhorred by everybody who knew him," and 
he " has the blackest heart that ever was lodged in a human 
breast." It was sufficient for a man to thwart Francis to secure 
his scathing contempt and unscrupulous abuse. " I pass my 
life," he once wrote, " in an eternal combat with villainy, folly, 
and prostitution of every species." It must have been impossible 
— as Clavering and Monson, like Hastings and Barwell, soon 
found— to work harmoniously with a man intolerant of opposi- 
tion, steeped in vanity, and prone to jump, on slight provocation, 
to the most cruel conclusions. 

Francis did not take kindly to, or make the best of India. 
He never travelled a hundred miles frcm Calcutta, and the 
interest that he took in the natives was entirely theoretical. He 
regarded them as the helpless victims of the policy that he was 
called upon to reform, and he strove to obtain consideration for 



their rights as men, while he despised them in his heart. He 
could not, he said, "form a conception of more refined depravity " 
than was shewn by Bengalees in office ; and he added, in a 
private memorandum, that " the united testimony of Moguls and 
Europeans is equally unfavourable to the inhabitants of the rest 
of the provinces." His " experience and observation " did not 
subsequently induce him to modify this sweeping judgment of a 
vast number of his fellow-creatures who were distinguished by 
domestic virtues, and by loyalty to those who promoted their 
welfare. At the same time he considered that the natives 
should be left to their own manners, customs, and devices as 
much as possible ; and he advocated their employment in the 
government of their own country. He desired to make British 
power paramount ; but he held, much as Russian officials in 
Central Asia now do, that the Government should merely " watch 
the administration of men in office," and " be content with a gross 
tribute," and that the moral improvement of the people was out- 
side the range of practical politics in the East. He was opposed 
to conquest, and he had no sympathy with the arguments 
employed by Hastings, and ratified by the Court of Directors, to 
justify annexation. 

Francis's salary was large, but it did not allow of such savings 
being made as he may have confidently expected when he 
was appointed. He was compelled by due regard for his official 
position to take a "large, but rather mean house" in Calcutta, 
rented at ;^500 a year, and to maintain an establishment of sixty 
.servants, none of whom rendered efficient service. Later on he 
became, he said, " master of the finest house in Bengal, with a 
hundred servants, a country house, spacious gardens, horses and 
carriages." He was a great card player, and, by his own 
admission, he " won a fortune " in Calcutta at cards. " It is 
true," he wrote to a friend at home, " I have won a fortune, and 
intend to keep it. Your tenderness for the loser is admirable. 
If money be his blood, I feel no kind of remorse in opening his 
veins ; the bloodsucker should bleed, and can very well afford 
it." On the i6th of September, 1776, he informed a friend that 
" on one blessed day of the present year of our Lord I had won 
about twenty thousand pounds at whist. It is reduced to about 


twelve, and I now never play but for trifles, and that only once 
a week." Barwell was the chief loser, his losses being estimated 
by Francis at ;^30,0D0, " of which Judge Lemaistre and Colonel 
Leslie had a share." Hastings may have conformed to the 
card-playing fashion of his time, but Francis did not mention 
having won money from, or lost money to him. 

Francis " hated the thought," he said, " of dying of the spleen," 
in India, "like a rat in a hole," partly because "I know my 
death would give pleasure to people to whom my life has given 
none, and whose private wishes I am unwilling to gratify." He 
disliked Calcutta, but he enjoyed good health during his stay 
there. " With good management," he remarked on one occasion, 
" I am a match for the climate." But he suffered at times from 
depression of spirits, and a year after his arrival he wrote from 
Calcutta to Henry Strachey,^ and said : — 

As for myself, I lead too miserable a life to wish to continue here in bad 
company. The longer I live, and the more I observe, so much the more am 
I confirmed in thinkitig that no man, before or since my Lord Clive, has had 
the least idea of the constitution of a government in this country upon any 
great or even rational principles. I have worked double and treble tides. 
I hope I shall gain credit, for I assure you I see no prospect of profit. I 
persuade myself you will support my cause vigorously at the west end of the 
town. In the City I think I shall be a favourite. At the same time, I am 
not ambitious of popularity, much less do I desire to figure in the news- 
papers. It would mortify me beyond measure to have my merits canvassed 
in the Public Adverther to my advantage. 

Seven months later Francis wrote : — 

I see no reason why Barwell should be alive, but that death does not 
think it worth while to kill him. He is a mere shadow. As for Hastings, I 
promise you he is more tough than any of us, and will never die a natural 

Irritated at last beyond endurance by the systematic opposi- 
tion of Francis, Hastings remarked on the 20th July, 1780, when 
replying to a minute of Francis : " I do not trust to his promise 
of candour, convinced that he is incapable of it. I judge of his 
public conduct by my experience of his private, which I have 
found devoid of truth and honour." He proceeded to explain 

Historical Manuscripts Commission, 6th Report. 



that Francis had deHberately broken a solemn agreement formed 
between them. Hastings did not conceal from himself that 
Francis would be compelled by the custom of the age to demand 
" satisfaction." Francis was equal to the occasion. He met 
Hastings in the Revenue Board Office, and read to him a few 
words in which he said that he was preparing a formal answer 
to the accusation ; but " no answer I can give to the matter of 
that paper can be adequate to the dishonour done me by the 
terms you have made use of You have left me no alternative 
but to demand personal satisfaction of you for the affront you 
have offered me." Hastings replied that he " had expected the 
demand, and was ready to answer it." On the following day 
Hastings ordered his minute to be recorded ; and Francis, in 
view of contingencies, employed himself in settling his affairs, 
"burning papers, etc., in case of the worst," which he found to be 
" dull work." On the morning of the 17th, at about 6 o'clock, 
Hastings, accompanied by Colonel Pearse as his second, and 
Francis, accompanied by Colonel Watson, met on the ground 
near Belvedere, and were placed at a distance of fourteen paces 
from one another. Francis thus described what followed : — 

My pistol missing fire, I changed it. We then fired together, and I was 
wounded and fell. I thought that my backbone was broke, and of course 
that I could not survive it. After the first confusion had subsided, and after 
I had suffered great inconvenience from being carried to a wrong place, I 
was at last conveyed to Major Foley's house on a bed. The surgeon arrived 
in about an hour and a half from the time I was wounded, and cut out the 
ball, and bled me twice in the course of the day. Mr. Hastings sends to 
know when he may visit me. 

Francis desired Colonel Watson to "tell Mr. Hastings as 
civilly as possible that I am forced to decline his visit." On the 
24th, or a week after the duel, Francis returned to Calcutta. On 
the nth September he attended Council, and there was "great 
civility between H. and me." But it was a hollow truce ; and 
four months after the duel, and while smarting under a sense 
of baffled hatred and official defeat, Francis left India, after a 
residence there of seven years. He probably buoyed himself 
up with the hope that the day would yet come when he would 
succeed in turning the tables on Hastings with a vengeance. 



Francis went to Windsor, shortly after his arrival in England, 
to present to Queen Charlotte a parcel with which he had been 
entrusted by Lady Day, the wife of the Advocate-General of 
Madras. In a letter to Sir John Day he declared that it had 
not " fallen to my lot to see anything comparable to the grace- 
fulness, affability, and dignity with which " the Queen " ex- 
pressed herself to nie and to everybody. In addition to all 
which I did not know there had been so many diamonds in the 
world as Her Majesty was covered with." He also said that he 
had had " a most gracious reception " from the King. But the 
Court of Directors offered him no greeting, or compliment on 
his return. " They know that I am alive," he said ; " and as long 
as they know that, I think they will not quarrel with me." The 
recollection of this neglect assisted to embitter him against 
the whole system of administration in India. " The Court of 
Directors is devoted to Hastings," he wrote two months later, 
" and I am in great hopes will go to the devil with him." He 
endeavoured to distinguish between the East India Company 
and the Court of Directors. He owed much to the Company, 
he argued, but nothing to the Directors. All the same he seems 
to have shared the candid opinions of a friend of his, that a 
corporation like the East India Company, composed of traders 
of various denominations, and instituted merely for mercantile 
purposes, must be a scoundrel from its very frame." 

Mr. Barwell wrote on the i8th February, 1782, from London 
to Hastings at Calcutta : ^ — 

It is with pleasure I inform you that Francis daily loses ground. The 
petulance and captiousness of his character have totally sunk him in the 
opinion of the Directors, and his manners have caused that disgust which 
breaks forth into reproach whenever his name is mentioned. Your friend, 
Mr. Sullivan, has, with infinite ability, defeated him in his attempt on the 
direction, and his impatience under it has completed the business. Just 
after Francis's arrival, he gave out how well he had been received, and how 
much distinguished by Lord North. Within six weeks of the promulgation 
of this puff, I had the satisfaction of detecting him ; for upon questioning 
Mr. Brummell, his lordship's secretary, he laughed, and observed that Mr. 
Francis had been at Bushey once, and from that period to this had never 

^ Copied from the original letter in the Hastings collection by Mr. E. B. 
Impey, for his Mcjnoirs of his father. 



repeated his visit to Lord North. Lord Mansfield positively declined his 
first visit, and I do not find that any one of the King's Ministers hold any 
intercourse with him. Thus circumstanced he no longer exults, but, cha- 
grined and mortified, complains in bitterness of spirit, and prophesies the 
loss of India under any government but his own. 

Francis spared no trouble on his return home to bring about 
the ruin of Hastings, who had received a year's extension of 
office as a proof of the Company's satisfaction with him ; and, 
so early as January, 1782, he wrote to a friend that " everything 
that could be done by one human creature to support a cause, 
has been done by me from the day of my arrival in England." 
He never disguised from himself the difficulty that attended 
the task which he had undertaken. Hastings had made many 
friends in the Houses of Parliament as well as in Leadenhall 
Street, and Francis could boast of comparatively few intimacies. 
But nothing daunted, and possessed as he was of wide experi- 
ence and much craft, he soon established the right to be regarded 
as an important authority on Indian affairs, and made himself 
exceedingly useful to the politicians who professed to be ani- 
mated by a desire to reform the administration of India. He 
is credited at the British Museum with the authorship of a 
political tract, entitled A state of the British Authority in Bengal, 
nnder the Government of Mr. Hastings, exemplified in his con- 
duct in the case of Mahomet Reza Khan, zuith a debate upon a 
letter from Mobarick al Doivlah, Nabob of Bengal, from authentic 
documents. In a preface it is explained that this "appeal" is 
*' not addressed to the passions, but to the people " ; that it 
claims to be a " narration of facts " ; and that " it exhibits one 
great example of that usurpation of the Company's servants, of 
that spirit of disobedience, I had almost said rebellion, which, 
while it threatens our affairs in India with instant ruin, holds 
forth a solecism in politics that is a mockery of every idea of 
Government and legal authority." The " debate " is that which 
took place in the Council at Calcutta on the 22nd and 23rd 
November, and the 15th and 20th December, 1779, and Francis's 
observations occupy the largest part of the tract. 

Francis is also believed to have been the author of a Short 
Account of Hastings' conduct in 1775, in repudiating the 



action of Colonel Lauchlan Macleane, who, acting under the 
authority which Hastings had conditionally given to him and 
another gentleman, tendered Hastings' resignation to the Court 
of Directors, which the Court accepted. As a matter of fact, 
Hastings retracted his determination to yield to his enemies by 
resigning. " I am now resolved," he wrote to his friends, " to see 
the issue of my appeal, believing it impossible that men, whose 
actions are so frantic, can be permitted to remain in charge 
of so important a trust." There w^as certainly some misconcep- 
tion on the part of Hastings, or his representative, which was 
severely censured by the Court, though in the end Hastings was 
allowed to remain in office. The writer of the Short Account 
remarked in the preface that " it has been objected to the 
strictures which have lately appeared on the administration of 
Air. Hastings that they are personal " ; and he then proceeds to 
say : — 

For my own part, I covet not the praise of that cold philosophical jus- 
tice, which, while it condemns the treason, suffers the traitor to escape. 
Such languid censure is, in my opinion, little better than the accomplice of 
crime. The most atrocious offenders will be the foremost to embrace a 
morality which terminates in abstract propositions, and contents itself with 
preaching rigid rules of piety and virtue, without presuming to interfere with 
practice, and without applying them as the measures of public approbation 
or contempt. 

The writer then declared that, in the case of Hastings, — 

It is impossible to separate the person from the politics of the Governor. 
That gentleman, with the concurrence of one humble assessor, has, during 
the last five years, ruled the affairs of India by his absolute will, in violation 
of all the wise maxims of administration established by experience, and in 
contempt and defiance of the legal control and superintendence of his mas- 
ters. In despotic states the character, nay, the caprices of the Tyrant must 
be studied in order to form a judgment of the principles of his Govern- 

The incident had been condoned by the Court of Directors, 
and must have been forgotten by the public when the Short 
Account appeared ; and it is difficult to believe that any one 
but Francis could have thought it worth while to hark back so 
many years for the means of holding Hastings up to contempt. 

But Francis perceived the risk of employing to any consider- 



able extent in his designs against Hastings his aptitude for 
scurrilous paniphleteering, for he could not have long main- 
tained his anonymity, as no one had cause to feel as he did. 
He paved the way for his entrance into Parliament by making 
himself useful to Burke, Fox, and others; and in 1783, on the 
introduction of the India Bill in the House of Commons, 
Burke acknowledged his indebtedness to him in the following 
words : — 

Consider the fate of those who have met with the applauses of the 
Directors. Colonel Monson, one of the best of men, had his days shortened 
by the applauses, destitute of the support, of the Company. General 
Clavering, whose panegyric was made in every despatch from England, 
whose hearse was bedewed with the tears, and hung round with the eulogies of 
the Court of Directors, burst an honest and indignant heart at the treachery 
of those who ruined him by their praises. Uncommon patience and temper 
supported Mr. Francis a while longer under the baneful influence of the 
commendation of the Court of Directors ; his health, however, gave way at 
length, and in utter despair he returned to Europe. At his return the doors 
of the India House were shut to this man who had been the object of their 
constant admiration. He has indeed escaped with life, but he has forfeited 
all expectation of credit, consequence, party, and following" — this man, 
whose deep reach of thought, whose large legislative conception, and whose 
grand plans of policy make the most shining part of our reports, from 
whence we have all learned our lessons, if we have learned any good ones ; 
this man, from whose materials those gentlemen who have least acknow- 
ledged it have yet spoken as from a brief ; this man, driven from his em- 
ployment, discountenanced by the Directors, has had no other reward, and 
no other distinction but that inward "sunshine of the soul" which a good 
conscience can always bestow on itself. He has not yet had so much as a 
good word, but from a person too insignificant to make any other return for 
the means with which he has been furnished, for performing his share of a 
duty which is equally urgent on us all. 

It must have been well known to most of the hearers of these 
remarks that Francis voluntarily resigned his appointment ; 
that, as the fruits of an actual service of only six years in India, 
he brought home a fortune that, by his own admission, yielded 
an income of ^^3,000 a year ; and that he was not welcomed 
by the Court of Directors chiefly on account of his malignant 
hostility against Hastings. For a time Burke deceived himself 
about the character and motives of the man who influenced his 
mind, but he failed to communicate his early estimate of Francis 


to many of his contemporaries, or to modify the calm verdict of 
history. It was an ill day for Burke's ^ reputation when he 
opened the "porches of his ears " to the " leprous distilment " of 
the reputed author of the Letters of Jtiniiis. 

Francis was returned to Parliament in 1784, as member for 
Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, and seized an early opportunity to 
declare that he had not a " spark of personal animosity to Mr. 
Hastings. We are both, I believe, of a temper too warm to be 
capable of lasting resentments. Our contest is at an end, and 
the hostilities it produced expired with it. Assuredly I feel no 
enmity to him, and I readily acquit him of harbouring any 
against me." He professed too much, and claimed to be capable 
of a magnanimity that was foreign to his character. He had had 
many a struggle with Hastings in India, he had been defeated 
all along the line, and had finally been wounded in a duel that 
his uncompromising hostility provoked. To bring Hastings 
metaphorically to the block became the chief aim of his exist- 
ence. But his bitter feeling against Hastings was well known 
in and out of the House of Commons, for it had become 
his master passion. When, therefore, it was proposed by Burke 
and his coadjutors in the preliminary proceedings to add the 
name of Francis to the Parliamentary Committee appointed to 
consider Hastings' reply to the articles of indictment, the sense 
of fair play in the majority of the members revolted, and the 
motion was rejected by nearly four votes to one. This well- 
merited rebuff greatly irritated the promoters of the prosecution, 
but they nursed their wrath for a while. Later on the selection 
of members to be managers of the trial took place, and Fox, 
unwarned by the former incident, moved the inclusion of the 
name of Francis. But the House threw out the motion by two 
votes to one. Thereupon Burke and the other managers ad- 
dressed a letter to Francis, in which they humbly solicited his 

^ Burke entertained a sincere regard for Francis at one time. " Be as- 
sured," he once wrote to him at Calcutta, "that no person rejoices more 
sincerely than I do in hearing every circumstance of fortune and honour 
that attends you;" and he concluded by alluding to his own and his 
brother's "affection" for him. Later on, however, his opinion of Francis 
underwent a considerable change, and he ceased to regard him as a friend. 



advice and assistance during the trial. They claimed that " an 
exact knowledge of the affairs of Bengal was requisite in every 
step of their proceedings, and that it was necessary that their 
information should come from sources not only competent but 
unsuspected." This no one could reasonably deny. But they 
went on to give Francis, who had systematically opposed Hast- 

FRANCis {af^er Gillmy). 

ings in Council, credit for an " exact obedience to the authority 
placed over him, an inflexible integrity in himself, and a firm 
resistance to corrupt practices in others." The House had 
issued its mandate to the managers of the trial. It had also 
pronounced on two occasions its deliberate opinion that, owing 
to notorious circumstances, Francis was not a fit and proper 


person to be a manager. Yet the managers did not scruple to 
bring the authority of the House into contempt by endeavour- 
ing to whitewash their ally, and declaring, in effect, that not- 
withstanding his formal and repeated rejection by the House, 
they would take it upon themselves to vest him with an 
authority, and concede him an influence which the House dis- 
approved. They begged the whole question as to his impar- 
tiality, and plainly indicated that they would not hesitate about 
deriving inspiration from a tainted and discredited source. 

Party spirit ran high in those days, and prompted men of 
honour to lend themselves to a flagrant imposture that could 
have deceived no one. Francis may have been consoled by 
the letter for the want of confidence in him that the House 
displayed. He remained behind the scenes during the trial, 
prompting the actors ; and it was greatly, if not chiefly, owing to 
his inexhaustible aversion to Hastings, and his unremitting toil 
in the prosecution, that the proceedings were unconscionably 

In one of the Letters of Siuipkin the Second to his dear 



CHoyen actif et sans culolte {after Hiiinplu-y). 



brother in Wales, to which attention is drawn on a subsequent 
page, the author refers to Francis as a " hack in office in Lon- 
don who, by serviHty and flattery," became, according to his 
own description, the " fifth part of a potent King" in Bengal ; 
and who, having striven in vain to effect the ruin of Hastings, 
had returned to England. The rhymster then proceeded : — 

No sooner on shore had our Phill set his feet, 

Than he drove, Hke a post boy, to Leadenhall Street ; 

In the flames of his malice, he burnt to disclose 

A tale which had cost him some years to compose ; 

But he got a rebuff from the Court of Directors ; 

They were Hastings' friends ; they were virtue's protectors ; 

They paid just regard to their honour and glory ; 

They read not Ph ill's papers, they heard not Phill's story. 

Tho' like lightning to England from India he came, 

In speed he was greatly surpass'd by his fame ; 

They knew how the measures of Hastings he crost, 

How near his advice Coromandel had lost ; 

By the Court of Directors, it clearly was seen 

That the man was a compound of envy and spleen. 

Then away to the mongers of boroughs went he. 
To try, if with some one he could not agree ; 
And find a fit corner— for once — to his use 
For speech unrestrained, and for licenc'd abuse. 
But when he discovered that loud declaration 
Could produce no effect on a sensible nation, 
His attention was turn'd to the Quixote-like Burke, 
Who is fond of engaging in Quixote-like work. 

The poet then describes Francis's negotiations with Burke, 
Fox, and Sheridan : — 

Three years have elaps'd since the suit they began ; 
They may work many more, let them do all they can, 
Before they will conquer this much injured man ! 

Burke declared that he could not proceed without Francis's 
aid as a manager, and thus : — 

" Betray'd the base source whence thy charges all sprung," 
Said part of the House, which till then had believ'd 
The story, now find themselves grossly deceiv'd. 

How many good men now are griev'd to the heart 
To think they were talk'd into taking a part ; 


But Fr s triumphantly laughs in his sleeve, 

To think he so long could the public deceive. 

As he walk'd along Bond Street, he said to a friend, 

" Tho' my foe be acquitted, 'twill answer my end ; 

Opprest with fatigue, and o'erburdened with cost, 

His health will be broken, his fortune be lost." 

Then he swore by the Lord, he would not cease pursuing 

Till death and damnation had finish'd his ruin, 

Tho' so generous an oath he confess'd gave him pain 

To come from a bosom so kind and humane. 

Mr. Fox retained his regard for Francis to the end of his Hfe ; 
and in January, 1806, when news was received of the death of 

the Marquis of Cornwallis, Governor-General of India, at Gazee- 
poor, and when the new Ministry was formed in consequence 
of the premature death of Mr. Pitt, Hastings noted in his diary 
that among the appointments would probably be that of " Mr. 
Francis for India, urged by Mr. Fox." But Francis was now 
sixty-eight years old, and he was obviously disqualified by age 
— as Lord Cornwallis had been — for service in India. Fox was 
anxious to serve Francis ; for, when almost the whole of his for- 
mer allies in Parliament deserted him, Francis stood by his side, 
and he was among those personal friends who raised between 
them a fund that gave Fox i^3,ooo a year after he squandered 




all his own resources. But Fox knew Francis too intimately to 
thoroughly trust him ; and though he availed himself freely 
during the trial of Hastings of Francis's services as an informer 
and adviser, he could not overcome the apprehension that if 
Francis, at an advanced age, and with infirmities of disposition 
that age did not modify, were appointed Governor-General, he 
would set all official India by the ears, and provoke conflicts 

u - i 
1 'h, , 

FOX [after Gillray). 

with the home Government. But he induced Lord Grenville to 
offer Francis the Governorship of the Cape of Good Hope, and 
the Order of the Bath. Francis declined the Governorship ; 
accepted the Knighthood of the Bath ; and aspired to, but did 
not obtain admission to the Privy Council. His ambition, how- 
ever, was not satisfied, and he never forgave Fox for what he 
regarded as that statesman's ingratitude. The Prince Regent 
endeavoured to console him for his disappointment. " Francis," 
said he, " if you will accept the Cape, Fll send you on farther 
when I come into power." In 18 12 the Prince desired him to 


State his " wishes and claims " in writing, and Francis complied 
by drawing up a memorial in which, after a brief allusion to 
his services in India and in Parliament, he remarked that the 
Prince^ had always designated me, and particularly to Mr. Fox, 
as the person whom he meant to appoint to the office of 
Governor-General, and that he had signified the same expressly 
to Lord Moira, who heartily concurred in it." Francis wrote to 
a friend that he would have " put a stop to great enormities in 
India," if Fox had found it to "coincide with his politics or 
his partialities to have permitted me to return to India in the 
office that was full as much my right as it was his to be Secre- 
tary of State." But Fox was right ; and few persons at the 
time who were acquainted with Francis could have thought 
otherwise. It would have been an outrage on India to have 
appointed the " masked assassin " of Hastings to a position 
where he would have strained every nerve to undo, or discredit 
the good work that Hastings succeeded in accomplishing de- 
spite his inveterate hostility. 

In 1813 Mr. John Taylor published his Discovery of 
Junius^ in which he attributed the notorious letters to the 
Rev. Dr. Francis, who, he assumed, had the aid of his son ; but 
on more mature reflection, and with the aid of other critics, 
he arrived at the conclusion, which he embodied in his Junius 
Identified, that Philip Francis alone was the culprit. The 
Duke of Gloucester lent an early copy of the second book to 
Hastings, at Cheltenham, when the latter visited him, and 
Hastings mentioned in his diary that he took it with him to 

^ The Prince raised expectations in Francis which he eventually dis- 
appointed. He acted in the same way to Hastings, and to many others. 
But though he professed regard for Hastings, he rarely commanded his 
presence at Carlton House, or at the Pavilion. With Francis, however, it 
was otherwise ; for Francis was a man of the gay world, with political in- 
fluence, and engaging social qualities, when he chose ; and his company and 
conversation were welcome to the Prince. Francis told his wife that : " I 
would have made a great monarch of him, but personal vanity stood in the 
way, and, still more, want of moral integrity." The Prince was fickle in his 
attachments to those who contributed to his amusement, and in the end he 
turned the cold shoulder to Francis. 



Daylesford ; but he did not record his opinion about it. It 
is very probable that, with his bitter experience of Francis's 
character, he agreed with a learned judge of his day, who ob- 
served that, " If there is any dependence on the law of pre- 
sumptive evidence, the case is made out." 

It was some time before Francis opened the book. He 
'* was extremely alarmed," says Lady Francis, " when he heard 
of the work, and refused for many months to read it, lest he 
might find something that might necessitate him to make some 
declaration." Gradually he gained courage, and proceeding to 
the shelter of the house of a friend in the north of England, 
where he was free from intrusion, he at length studied the 
indictment. *' It was evident," continues his wife, " upon his 
return to his family, that he had been greatly agitated ; past 
scenes, of which a long course of years had deadened the re- 
membrance, had probably been recalled to his mind, and all 
the feelings and anxieties of the time long laid to rest had 
started up like spirits from their silent graves, and passed before 
him ; his cheek burned, and his eye betrayed what was passing 
within him." He resented, and as far as possible evaded, the 
curiosity of his acquaintances which the book had excited, or 
revived ; and as some of the members hinted at, or rallied him 
upon the authorship, he withdrew his name from Brooks's Club, 
which being close to his house had been one of his most 
favourite haunts since 1785, when he was "chosen" a member 
on the proposition of Fox. 

Although, according to his widow, the " real man " was "little 
known " outside his home, Francis was a conspicuous person 
at the Club, and was held in much respect by the members. He 
had been a frequent guest at Carlton House, and at the 
Pavilion, Brighton, as well as at the town and country resi- 
dences of notable persons ; he readily adapted himself, when 
he liked, to his surroundings ; and though obviously a cynic, 
whom it might be dangerous to affront, he did not indulge his 
cynicism in speech as he did on paper. He had a tall, erect, 
and slender figure ; a well-shaped head ; small and delicately 
moulded ears ; and handsome features. His manners were 
^ refined ; his culture was remarkable ; his experience was extcn- 


sive ; and he was full of anecdote. His friends knew what a 
deprivation it would be to him in his declining years to be 
denied the congenial society of the Club, and they entreated 
him to recall his resignation. But he persisted in his intention, 
for " he knew," says Lady Francis, " that he could not continue 
his name without being tempted to go ; and as at that time he 
never met with an acquaintance who did not mention the book 
to him, he felt that it was a necessary sacrifice." He accord- 
ingly took the step which was best calculated to convince the 


members that the sacrifice was due to conscious guilt. Their 
conclusion, and that of other critics, must have been strengthened 
by the eloquent fact that, during the four years that elapsed 
between the appearance of the book and his death, Francis did 
not pursue the natural course, had he been innocent, of taking 
up the " pen of a ready writer," which was at his command to 
the last, to vindicate his reputation. He preferred to allow 
judgment to go by default. The curses of his early years came 
home to roost at last, and embittered the close of his life. He 
peremptorily refused to be interrogated about Junius ; but he 
must have known that the deferential silence of his associates 
on the subject was no evidence of their rejection of the theory 



of his responsibility. He may have Hved down some of the 
malignant hatreds of his youth ; but an essay on The CJiarac- 
teristics of the Kings of England, which was one of his latest 
literary efforts, shows that he was capable of extreme severity 
of judgment and unpardonable violence of language to the last. 
He did not lack the will to flay John Taylor alive. But he 
did not dare to gratify his intense rancour ; and Mr. Taylor 
survived him nearly half a century, and then died, in 1864, 
aged eighty-one, with the satisfaction of knowing that he had 
rendered a service to history. 

Francis was remarkable, like Hastings, for what Merivale 
happily describes as " portentous industry " ; and his activity 
with his pen " was something prodigious." He was a master 
of the art of producing minutes of exceptional ability — 
" quite able enough," in the opinion of Moore the poet, who 
read them with admiration of their literary merits, " to mark 
him as the author of fujtins" From his twentieth year he had 
had no scruple about making digests of official correspondence 
that passed through his hands, for his private use ; and little 
did his official superiors imagine that letters marked " Private 
and Confidential," " Secret," or " Most Secret," which they rough- 
drafted or dictated, and which he fair-copied, were subjected 
to this process. Francis committed this breach of faith so 
systematically that at length his conscience may have ceased to 
hint to him that he was doing anything that was discreditable. 
But he was careful not to afford any subordinate of his own 
the opportunity of similarly abusing his confidence. He was 
singularly diligent in making, and careful in preserving copies 
of any letters of importance that he wrote ; and he left masses 
of manuscript that gave his executors no inconsiderable trouble. 
Like Hastings, he was in the habit of keeping letters that he 
received for future reference. But there was this marked differ- 
ence between the two men, that whereas Hastings was incapable 
of taking a mean advantage of correspondence written in the 
confidence of private intimacy, Francis was an unsafe man to 
confide in, since, as an adversary, he had no scruple about his 
choice of weapons. Hastings was slow to think evil, and quick 
to think well of his associates, and the friendships that he formed 


were lasting ; but Francis, sooner or later, broke with every 
friend whom he possessed outside the domestic circle. The 
objects that prompted the two men to preserve the correspond- 
ence which they received, and to keep copies of the letters which 
they wrote, were therefore not identical ; but they both conferred 
an obligation on posterity by the extraordinary care that they 
took of their private papers. 

Like Hastings, Francis enjoyed immunity from the usual 
infirmities of old age, owing in no small measure to his habitual 
moderation in eating and drinking, and to his precise habits of 
life. He did not share Hastings' innate love for rural surround- 
ings, for he was essentially a man of the town, who shone in 
society, and loved movement around him. He gave the country 
a trial soon after his return from India ; but he drifted back to 
London, and bought the large house known as 14, St. James's 
Square, which the East India United Service Club acquired in 
1 86 1, and still occupies. He reserved for his own use three 
rooms on the ground floor, and converted one into a library, 
which he supplied with a valuable collection of books. He lived 
here for several years, with occasional visits to the country seats 
of friends of note. Time passed on, but his " bodily strength 
seemed little abated, the power of his understanding remained 
almost as fresh as ever, his interest in the affairs of the world 
around him as great." At length, however, he laid down to die. 
" He had the happiness," says Lady Francis, " of his last prayers 
being listened to, and of never becoming a painful object to those 
who loved him." He passed quietly away early in the morning 
of December 23rd, 18 18. "I thought," said Lady Francis, " he 
had awoke, and undrew the curtain, hung over him, and met his 
last breath ; not a sigh, not a motion, not a change of counte- 
nance. Heart, pulse, and breath stopped at once without an 
effort. How blessed ! how merciful ! " 

His will, written by himself, on one small folio sheet, contained 
a direction for his burial beside his daughter Elizabeth in Mort- 
lake Church, close to East Sheen, where he once resided, and 
not far from Fulham, where he wooed and won her mother. 
He wished to be interred with the utmost simplicity. " Of 
all human follies," he said, in his characteristic way, in his will. 



"posthumous vanity seems to me the silliest," and " I therefore 
positively order that I may be buried as privately as possible, 
and at the least possible expense." His directions were obeyed. 
His daughter Elizabeth was interred in a vault under the vestry 
of the church which has given its chief feature to Mortlake for 
upwards of four centuries, instead of under the floor of the body 
of the church in accordance with the time-honoured, but dan- 
gerous practice which was in vogue until recent years. The 
vestry is a commonplace, square, two-floor building, of which a 
corner is shown on the left side of the accompanying illustration. 


The upper storey is used as a schoolroom, and the basement 
bears few indications of being an integral part of a sacred edifice. 
The stone floor of the vestry is covered with planking, and the 
room is used by the choristers when robing and unrobing. 
There are a few old chests near the walls, in which the paro- 
chial records of many generations are preserved ; and, at the 
west end of the room, there is a valuable oil painting, by Sachers 
of Antwerp (who died in 1641), of the dead Christ, that was 
formerly used as an altar piece. Above the recess in which the 
choristers' gowns are hung are two contiguous, plain, white 


marble tablets. The one to the left shows traces of greater age 
than that to the right, and it is obvious that the pillar which 
now bounds the right-hand side of the latter formerly adjoined 
the right-hand side of the adjacent tablet. 


The left-hand tablet bears the following epitaph, which may 
be safely attributed to Francis : — 

In Memory of ELIZABETH FRANCIS, daughter of 
Philip Francis, Esq., and Elizabeth, his wife, who 
departed this life 14th July, 1804, aged 40 years, 
thus following to an untimely grave her beloved sister, 
Harriet Francis, who died at Nice, on the 2nd Jan. 1803, 
over whom she had watched with devoted affection during a 
lingering consumption, and whose loss she had lamented but 
nine months, when it was the will of Providence to afflict her 
with the same disorder. Her sufferings were great, but she 
preserved to her last minutes that fortitude of mind, and 
tenderness of heart which had ever been the 
most remarkable of her many virtues. 

The inscription on the right-hand tablet is as follows : — 

Here also lie interred the remains of 
father of Elizabeth and Harriet Francis, 
who departed this life 
on the 22nd day of December, 18 18, aged 78 years ; 
in fulfilment of the earnest wish expressed in his Will 
that he might be buried in the same grave with his dearest 
and most lamented daughter, Elizabeth. 



Francis was buried on the 31st December, 1818, and the 
vault was closed over his remains. But, five years later it was 
re-opened to receive those of his daughter Catherine, wife of 
George James Cholmondeley, of Cholmondeley in Cheshire, to 
whose memory a white marble tablet was placed to the left 
of the above-mentioned memorials. Thus Francis, who was a 
devoted father, whatever may have been his faults, rests beside 
two of his six children. 

He will long be remembered as a man of industry, culture, 
administrative capacity, political foresight, and public spirit, who, 
in the gratification of a malignant disposition, misapplied great 
talents, and misused splendid opportunities. He was proud and 
arrogant in his relations with most people ; yet he employed the 
strongest epithets at his command in denouncing pride and 
arrogance in others. Macaulay remarks that " no man is so 
merciless as he who, under a strong delusion, confounds his 
antipathies with his duties." No man was ever more smitten 
with this delusion than was Francis. But in an age of corruption 
Francis was not known to have been corrupt ; and his protests 
against jobbery and venality in high places were prompted, in all 
probability, by none other than a sense of public duty that was 
in advance of his time. Yet his biographer, Merivale, was forced 
to the conclusion that he was " a political adventurer who was 
utterly unscrupulous in the use of means " ; his " sincerity, even 
when he was sincere, was apt to assume the form of the most 
ignoble rancour" ; and "no ties of friendship, or party, or con- 
nection seern to have restrained his virulence." Sir James 
Stephen concurred in this severe judgment, and held that Francis 
was capable not only of " ferocious cruelty," but was " as false 
and treacherous to his friends as he was persistent in his malig- 
nity against his enemies." History has abundantly avenged 
Hastings of his adversary. 




A WEEK after Warren Hastings landed from the Barrington 
at Plymouth, Edmund Burke gave notice in the House of 
Commons that he " would at a future day make a motion re- 
specting the conduct of a gentleman just returned from India." 
This was the small beginning of a great storm ; for, two years 
and a half afterwards, Hastings, having been impeached by the 
Commons, was placed on his trial in Westminster Hall, before 
the Lords, to answer " charges of high crimes and misde- 
meanours exhibited by the knights, citizens, and burgesses in 
Parliament assembled, in the name of themselves and of all the 

The memorable trial commenced on the 13th February, 1788. 
About 1 1 o'clock, the Lords came from their own House into 
the Court arranged in Westminster Hall, preceded by the Lord 
Chancellor's Gentlemen Attendants, two and two ; the Clerk 
Assistant of the House of Lords, and the Clerk of the Parlia- 
ments ; the Clerk of the Crown in Chancery ; the Clerk of the 
Crown of King's Bench ; the Masters in Chancery, two and 
two ; the Judges, two and two ; Serjeants Adair and Hill ; the 
Yeomen Usher of the Black Rod ; two Heralds ; the Lords 
Barons, two and two ; the Lords Bishops, two and two ; the 
Lords Viscounts, two and two ; the Lords Earls, two and two ; 
the Lords Marquises, two and two ; the Lords Dukes, two and 
two ; the Mace Bearer ; the Lord Chancellor, with his train 
borne ; the Dukes of Cumberland and Gloucester ; and the 
Duke of York and Prince of Wales, with their trains. 

Each peer, as he passed the empty Throne that occupied the 
chief place of honour in the Court, made a profound obeisance. 
The Queen, wearing a dress of fawn-coloured satin, and a plain 




head-dress, with a very slender sprinkling of diamonds," 
attended the trial, accompanied by the Princesses Elizabeth, 
Augusta, and Mary, and the Duchess of Gloucester. All the 
managers of the trial were in full dress, but the majority of the 
Commons wore their usual costume. The seats occupied by 
the Commons were covered with green cloth ; the rest of the 
building was one red." A body of Horse Guards, under the 
command of a field officer, attended daily ; and three hundred 
Foot Guards, and a considerable number of constables kept the 
avenue clear. Two hundred members of each House of Parlia- 
ment were present. 

The following was the Committee for the Prosecution : 
Edmund Burke, Rt. Hon. C. J. Fox, R. P). Sheridan, Rt. Hon. 
T. Pelham, Rt. Hon. W. VVyndham, Sir Gilbert Elliot, Bart., 
Charles Grey, William Adam, Sir John Anstruther, M. A. 
Taylor, Viscount Maitland, Dudley Long, General J. Burgoyne, 
Hon. G. A. North, Hon. Andrew St. John, Hon. A. Fitzherbert, 
John Courtenay, J. Rogers and Sir James Erskine. For the 
Commons Dr. Scott and Mr. Lawrence, Messrs. Mansfield, 
Pigott, Burke, and Douglas, were counsel ; Messrs. Wallis and 
Troward were attorneys ; and Mr. Gurney was shorthand writer. 
For Mr. Hastings Messrs Law, Plumer, and Dallas were 
counsel ; Mr. Shawe was attorney ; and Mr. Hodgson was short- 
hand writer. Mr. Blanchard was shorthand writer for the Lords. 

Hastings wished to be defended by Erskine, who distin- 
guished himself during the trial of Lord George Gordon. But 
though Erskine admitted that he would have liked to cross 
swords with Burke, and to "smite him hip and thigh," he pro- 
fessed his inability to oppose Fox and Sheridan, who belonged, 
like Burke, to his ow^n political party. Hastings then yielded 
to the recommendation of his former subordinate in India, Sir 
Thomas Rumbold, late Governor of Madras, to engage Edward 
Law, the latter's brother-in-law ; and when a general retainer, 
with a fee for five hundred guineas,- was offered to Law (who 
was in good practice on the Northern Circuit), he discerned the 
opportunity that the case would afford him for distinction, and 
accepted the position of leading counsel, with Thomas Plumer 
and Richard Dallas as juniors. He retired for a time, with 


masses of documents, to Windermere, to work up the case. An 
idea of the labour that devolved upon him may be gathered 
from the fact that the printed brief which was delivered even- 
tually to counsel for the defence, with its index, extended to 
twenty-four folio volumes ! A copy of it is preserved in the 
library of Sir Edward Strachey, at Sutton Court, Somersetshire. 

Apart from the fees that stimulated his exertions, Mr. Law 
was probably influenced by a feeling of gratitude to Hastings 
for having given his patronage, when in India, to Thomas Law, 
the learned counsel's brother. Thomas Law was not slow in 
availing himself of the friendly offices of the Governor- General, 
and he acquired a large fortune in India, with which he returned 
to Europe, and then took with him to Washington, where he 
invested the greater part of it in the erection of houses near the 
Capitol, where he for some time resided. His building specula- 
tions were not successful, and it is said in the Gentlemaii s 
Magazine of July, 1807, that he lived "under the mortifying 
circumstance of daily witnessing whole rows of the shells of 
his houses gradually falling to pieces." 

Edward Law, fourth son of Edmund Law, Bishop of Carlisle, 
was born in 1750 ; was educated firstly at the School of Bury St. 
Edmunds, then as scholar on the foundation at Charterhouse ; 
became Captain of that School and Exhibitioner in 1767 ; matri- 
culated at Peterhouse College, Cambridge, of which his father 
was then Master, in 1767 ; Third Wrangler and Senior Chan- 
cellor's Prizeman, 1771 ; graduated B.A. 1771, M.A. 1774 ; elected 
Fellow of his College, 1771 ; admitted a student of Lincoln's 
Inn, 1769; practised as a special pleader; and called to the 
Bar, 1780. In the defence of Hastings he acquitted himself 
with such ability, that he obtained a large increase of prac- 
tice. He was elected a Bencher of the Inner Temple in 1787. 
He deserted the Whigs, and joined the Tories in 1793 ; was 
appointed Attorney-General of Lancaster, 1793 ; Attorney- 
General of England, and knighted in February, 1801 ; entered 
Parliament the following month as member for Newton, Isle of 
Wight ; was appointed Chief Justice of the King's Bench, and 
raised to the peerage as Baron Ellenborough of PZllenborough, 
in the county of Cumberland, 1802 ; and died in 18 18, leaving a 



fortune of ^240,000. He was buried, by his own request, at the 
Charterhouse, near the grave of Sutton, the founder, who died 
during the reign of Queen EHzabeth. His eldest son, Edward, 
was appointed Governor-General of India, in 1841 ; and for 
the services that he rendered in that high position, he was 
created Earl of Ellenborough and Viscount Southam in 1844. 

Hastings' second counsel, Thomas Plomer, or Plumer, was 
also greatly indebted to his association v/ith the famous trial in 
Westminster Hall for his eventual advancement to a high posi- 


tion in the judicature. The son of Thomas Plumer, of Lilling 
Hall, in the county of York, and born in 1753, he was sent to 
Eton at the early age of eight years, and is said by Foss, in the 
Judges of England, to have gained both from the head-master 
and his schoolfellows " that character for classical ability and 
suavity of disposition, which afterwards distinguished him at 
University College, Oxford " ; and the Rev. T. Maurice, in his 
Memoirs, represented him " as ardent, indefatigable in his 
studies, no difficulties can discourage, no pleasures allure him ; 
but on he toils with unwearied application." He proceeded to 
Oxford in 1771 ; was elected Vinerian Scholar in 1777 ; and was 
chosen Fellow of his College in 1779. He was called to the Bar 



in 1778, and was made a Commissioner in the Bankruptcy Court 
in 178 1. He was employed in the defence of Sir Thomas Rum- 
bold, at the Bar of the House of Commons ; and it was pre- 
sumably on the recommendation of Sir Thomas that he was 
retained for the defence of Hastings. He performed his duties 
most conscientiously ; and, shortly after the conclusion of the 
trial, he was made a King's Counsel. He was, a little later on, 
engaged in several important trials which brought him to further 
public notice. In 1805 he was appointed a Judge on the North 
Wales circuit. In 1806 he was promoted to be Solicitor-General ; 


was then knighted, and entered Parliament as member for 
Downton. He retained the office of Solicitor-General for five 
years, when he succeeded Sir Vicary Gibbs as Attorney-General. 
In 18 1 3 he was appointed Vice-Chancellor ; and, five years later, 
he was raised to the Mastership of the Rolls, in which high 
position he remained until his death in 1824, at the age of 
seventy-one. He was a sound lawyer, but " his style," according 
to Foss, " was so heavy, and his speeches were of such length 
and elaboration, that he fatigued his hearers without interesting 
them." He was compared in the following epigram to Lord 
TLldon, who was notorious for his habitual procrastination : — 



To cause delays in Lincoln's Inn 

Two diff'rent methods tend ; 
His Lordship's judgments ne'er begin, 

His Honour's never end. 

He was "impressive," as Lord Campbell says ; but his pro- 
lixity and tediousness made him unpopular with counsel, attor- 
neys, and clients. He retained the suavity that had marked 
him at Eton to the end of his career, and he was respected for 
his erudition. 

Robert Dallas, the third counsel for the defence of Hastings, 
was also remarkable for his polished manners. He was born in 
Kensington in 1756 ; became a member of Lincoln's Inn ; and 
acquired facility as a public speaker at a debating society held 
in Coachmakers' Hall. " With the gentlemanly address that 
distinguished him he was noted," according to Foss, "as one of 
the most elegant and accomplished orators in Westminster Hall." 
Having been brought to favourable notice by the zeal and ability 
which he displayed as one of the counsel for Lord George Gordon, 
when that harebrained nobleman was brought to trial on the 
charge of high treason, he was retained for the defence of 
Hastings, and thereby incurred the personal animosity of Burke, 
who, according to Lord Campbell, regarded Hastings' counsel 
as " venal wretches, who were accomplices in murder after the 
fact," though, in the opinion of Foss, " they never transgressed 
the strict line of their duty as advocates." Dallas was provoked 
on one occasion by Burke's virulence into making the following 
epigram (erroneously attributed for a^ long time to Law), which 
probably assisted to turn public opinion against the leader of 
the impeachment : — 

Oft have we wonder'd that on Irish ground 
No poisonous reptile has e'er yet been found ; 
Revealed the secret stands of Nature's work, 
She saved her venom to produce her Burke. 

At the end of the Hastings trial Dallas was made a King's 
Counsel. In 1802 he entered Parliament as member for St. 
Michael's, Cornwall; in 1804 he was appointed Chief Justice of 
Chester ; in 18 13 he was created Solicitor-General, and knighted ; 


six months later he was promoted to the bench of the Common 
Pleas ; and in 1818 he became Lord Chief Justice. He resigned 
office in 1823, and died the following year, seven months after 
his former colleague, Sir Thomas Plumer. 

There was an enormous demand for tickets of admission to 
the Hall, and it is said that as much as ^^50 was offered for a 
single ticket. Two caricatures, by Gillray, of the ticket were 
published. It will be seen from my sketches that in the left- 
hand plate Lord Thurlow is sitting on a stool of repentance, 
and that the trial scene is depicted at the foot of each picture. 
The heads of Burke, Fox, and Sheridan are introduced in the 
inner shield in each plate. 

An interesting description of the commencement of the trial 
is contained in the following letter from Miss Mary Orlebar to 
her aunt, Mrs. Eliza Orlebar, dated Percy Street, i6th February, 
1788, which was examined by the Historical Manuscripts Com- 
mission, and has been obligingly communicated to me by Mrs. 
Frederica Orlebar, of Merton, Buckhurst Hill, Essex : — 

Mr. Hill brought me a ticket for the opening of ]\Ir. Hastings' trial, 
which was on the next day. We arrived at Westminster Hall about 10 
o'clock, though not without having gone through some difficulties, notwith- 
standing the Guards kept excellent order ; but, before we got to them, our 
back panel had met with the fate of many others ; and on turning the corner 
into Palace Yard, we were very near being overturned, owing to Mr. Trot- 
man's coachman having forgot that the coach, which was a borrowed one, 
had not a crank neck, and took too short a turn. The Prince of Wales and 
Duke of York passed us in magnificent carriages ; they had the advantage 
of we plebeians, as they took the middle of the street, the Guards drawn up 
on one side, and our long string of coaches on the other. The Princes 
looked to great advantage in their robes. We had a very good seat in the 
Hall, after changing three times. I never saw so noble a sight ; the Dukes, 
Peers, Bishops and Judges in their robes. On one side was the House of 
Commons ; on the other the Peeresses. The Duchess of Gloucester and 
Mrs. Fitz Herbert were in the Royal Box, the Queen and four Princesses pre- 
ferring to sit in the Duke of Newcastle's Gallery, to avoid the obligation of a 
numerous retinue. My eyes were much gratified, but not equally so my 
ears, as seven long charges were read over, of which not a word could 
I hear. Mr. Hastings has a very emaciated, though interesting counte- 

Among the curious descriptions of the English Court, and the 
times generally, between 1779 and 1846, that were given by 



Miss Mary Frampton, of Moreton, Dorsetshire, in her " Diary," 
the following allusion to the trial appears : — 

In 1788 the impeachment and trial of Warren Hastings were the subject 
of frequent conversation, and the attendance at his trial for the first few 
years was the object of every one's desire. I was fortunate and had a 
ticket for the Duke of Newcastle's gallery, where, besides the advantage of 
getting to your seat in Westminster Hall cjuietly, through a fine house, in 
the passage that communicated with that gallery, there was, for the first 
year or two, a handsome cold collation set out for those admitted by the 
Duke's ticket. My Aunt, Elizabeth Fanquier, attended with me one year. 

LORD THURLOW {after Gillvay^. 

and I heard Mr. Burke make his opening speech, and several of the other 
managers declaim against Mr. Hastings. Being very young, I was, of 
course, carried away by their eloquence to believe all the charges. Mr. 
Grey, afterwards Lord Grey, the Prime Minister, pleased me particularly by 
his person and manner. The coup d'a'il was magnificent ; that fine building, 
Westminster Hall, full in every part, with gentlemen and ladies full dressed, 
and the peers in their robes. The Prince of Wales's bow to the Throne, on 
entering, and before taking his seat, was universally admired ; as was also 
the beauty of the then young Duke of Bedford, but he wanted the grace and 
noble air which the other possessed in the highest degree. The length of 
the trial put an end by degrees not only to the Duke of Newcastle's colla- 
tions, which were omitted certainly after the second year, but to all interest 
respecting the parties concerned on either side, and empty benches and 



woolsacks, as well as empty galleries, succeeded to the crowding and pres- 
sure for places and tickets of admission. 

At noon the Sergeant-at-Arms summoned " Warren Hastings, 
Esq., to come forth in Court, and save thee and thy bail, other- 
wise the recognisance of thee and thy bail will be forfeited." 
Thereupon Hastings appeared at the bar, and dropped upon 
his knees, but was at once requested by Lord Chancellor 
Thurlow to rise to his feet. He had complied with what he 
knew was required ; but, in a letter to his former Private Secre- 
tary, Mr. Thompson, he said that the " ignominious ceremonial 
of kneeling before the House of Lords" was an "usage that 


reflects more dishonour on that assembly for permitting its 
continuance than on those who are compelled to submit to it, 
and on whom it is inflicted as a punishment not only before 
conviction, but even before the accusations against them are 
read." The Chancellor, on the motion of a Peer, allowed the 
prisoner to have a chair. The accusations were then read, and 
Hastings replied : " My Lords, I am come to this high tribunal 
equally impressed with a confidence in my own integrity, and 
in the justice of the Court before which I stand." The Lord 
Chancellor then demanded who appeared in behalf of the Com- 
mons to substantiate the charges ? Mr. Burke immediately 



rose, and made an obeisance to the Court : " He stood forth," 
he said, " at ttie command of the Commons of Great Britain, as 
the accuser of Warren Hastings." 

As prosecutor-in-chief, Mr. Burke indulged, without let or 
hindrance, in excessive vituperation. He accused Hastings of 
" crimes which have their rise in the wicked dispositions of men 
— in avarice, rapacity, pride, cruelty, malignity of temper, 
haughtiness, insolence — in short, in everything that manifests 
a heart blackened to the very blackest — a heart dyed in black- 
ness — a heart gangrened to the core. . . . We have brought 


before you the head, the chief, the captain-general of iniquity — 
one in whom all the fraud, all the tyranny of India are embodied, 
disciplined, and arrayed." He then proceeded to charge the 
prisoner " with having taken away the lands of orphans ; with 
having alienated the fortunes of widows ; with having wasted 
the country, and destroyed the inhabitants after cruelly harassing 
and distressing them. I charge him with having tortured their 
persons, and dishonoured their religion through his wicked 
agents, who were at the bottom and root of his villainy.'' He 
accused him of having " gorged his ravenous maw " ; of never 
" dining without creating a famine " ; of feeding on the " indigent, 
the decaying, and the ruined"; of resembling the "ravenous 



A Throne. 

B Queen's Box. 

C Prince of Wales, etc. 

D Foreign Ministers. 

E ist Row, Duke of York's ; 

2nd, Royal Household ; 

3rd, Lord Chancellor's tickets. 
F Attendants on the Royal Family. 
G Peers' tickets. 
H Duke of Newcastle's gallery. 
I Board of Works. 

J Lord Chamberlain of the Household. 
K Deputy Great Chamberlain's tickets. 
L Peers' tickets. 
M Peeresses and their daughters. 
N Marquises. 
O Dukes. 

P Pi ince of Wales and Duke of York. 

Q Sir Lsaac Heard, Knight, Garter Principal 
King of Arms on the right of the Throne 
and the Herald of Arms on the left. 

R Peers Minor on each side of the Throne. 

S Judges seated on Woolsacks. 

T Lord Chancellor. 

U ^Masters in Chancery. 

V Archbishops of Canterbury and York. 

W Bi.hops. 

X Earls. 

Y Viscounts. 

Z Barons. 

a Speaker of the House of Commons. 

d House of Commons. 

c Managers and Committee for the Prosecu- 

d Mr. Burke opening the charges. 

e Shorthand Writer for the Commons. 

y Repeater of the Evidence. 

£■ Witness or Evidence Box. 

/i Mr. Hastings. 

2 Prisoner's leading Coiuisel. 

J Counsellors for the Prisoner. 

k Prisoner's Shorthand Writer. 

/ Counsellors' Clerks. 

Counsellors for the Managers and their 

n Clerks of the India House. 

o Shorthand Writer for the Lords. 

/ Usher of the Black Rod. 

g' Deputy Usher. 

r Serjeant of Arms and Deputy. 

J Mace Bearer to the Chancellor. 


vulture who destroys and incapacitates nature in the destruction 
of its objects while devouring the carcases of the dead" ; and 
of exhibiting a " cruelty beyond his corruption." He ridiculed 
him as a " swindling Moecenas — swindling of glory, and obtain- 
ing honour under false pretences" ; and declared that " his 
origin was low, obscure, and vulgar" ; that he was " bred in 
vulgar and ignoble habits," yet was more proud than persons 
born under canopies of state, and swaddled in purple. He 

T5URKE [after Gillray). 

alluded to "the damned and damnable proceedings of a judge 
in Hell"; and asserted that "such a judge was Warren Hast- 
ings." He regarded him as a " spider of Hell," as well as a 
"thief, tyrant, robber, cheat, swindler, sharper"; and he ex- 
pressed his regret that " the English language does not afford 
terms adequate to the enormity of his offences." Finally, 
" I impeach him," said Burke, " in the name of the Com- 
mons' House of Parliament, whose trust he has betrayed. 
I impeach him in the name of the English nation, whose ancient 



honour he has sullied. I impeach him in the name of the 
people of India, whose rights he has trodden under foot, and 
whose country he has turned into a desert. Lastly, in the name 
of human nature itself, in the name of both sexes, in the name 
of every age, in the name of every rank, I impeach the common 
enemy and oppressor of all !" 

As an oration Burke's speech was of extraordinary merit, and 
even Hastings was so enthralled by its eloquence that he said : 
" For half an hour I looked up at the orator in a reverie of 
wonder, and actually felt myself the most culpable man on 
earth. But I recurred to my own bosom, and there found a 


consciousness which consoled me under all I heard, and all I 

Mr. Sheridan was another of the managers of the trial who 
was at a loss for epithets to convey an idea of his detestation 
of the conduct of the prisoner at the bar. " The administration 
of Mr. Hastings," he said, " formed a medley of meanness and 
outrage, of duplicity and depredation, of prodigality and op- 
pression, of the most callous cruelty contrasted with the hollow 
affectation of liberality and good faith." This is the keynote 
of his speech, which was a marvellous example of oratory, 
however far it may have departed from truth and fair judg- 


ment. Burke listened to it with the utmost admiration. " That 
is the true style," he remarked to Fox while Sheridan was 
speaking, " something between poetry and prose, and better 
than either." On a later occasion Burke said that, in his 
opinion, the speech was " the most astonishing effort of elo- 
quence, argument, and wit united of which there is any record 
or tradition." Pitt held a similar opinion, as he considered 
that the speech surpassed all the eloquence of ancient and 
modern times, and possessed everything that genius or art 
could furnish to agitate and control the human mind." And 
Fox too declared that " all that he had ever heard, all that he 
had ever read, when compared with it dwindled into nothing, 
and vanished like a vapour before the sun." It was not to be 
expected that Hastings v/ould join in this chorus of unstinted, 
not to say exaggerated praise. He could not but have acknow- 
ledged the exceptional brilliancy of Sheridan's oratory, but he 
did not forgive his reckless vituperation. The two met, many 
years after the trial, as the guests of the Prince Regent, in the 
Pavilion, at Brighton ; and Sheridan, at the prompting of the 
Prince, advanced to Hastings, and said that : " The part which 
1 took in events long gone by must not be regarded as any test 
of my private opinions, because I was then a public pleader, 
whose duty it is, under all circumstances, to make good if he 
can the charges which he is commissioned to bring forward." 
But Hastings drew back a step ; looked Sheridan in the face ; 
made a low bow ; and remained silent. " Had he," Hastings 
subsequently said, " confessed as much twenty years ago, he 
might have done me some service." 

Hastings replied with dignity to the allegations of his accusers. 
He declared that he had had the satisfaction of seeing all his 
measures terminate in their designed objects ; that his political 
conduct had been invariably regulated by truth, justice, and 
good faith ; and that he had resigned his charge in a state of 
established peace and security, with all the sources of its abun- 
dance unimpaired, and even improved. " I am arraigned," he 
said, " for desolating the provinces in India which are the most 
flourishing of all the States in India. It was I who made them 
so. I gave you all ; and you have rewarded me with con- 



fiscation, disgrace, and a life of impeachment." He solemnly 
avowed that he " did in no instance intentionally sacrifice the 
interest of my country to any private views of personal ad- 
vantage" ; and "that according to my best skill and judgment 
I invariably promoted the essential interest of my employers, 
the happiness and prosperity of the people committed to my 
charge, and the welfare and honour of my country." But though 
Hastings maintained a calm demeanour in Court, he was greatly 
pained by the calumnies with which he was loaded. " I am 
charged," he said, in a letter to John Shore, " with cruelty, 
oppression, violation of treaties, and with the general guilt of 
having sacrificed every duty to the views of interest, ambition, 
or private vengeance. I am not sure that rapacity makes a 
part of the catalogue of my imputed crimes, because the in- 
stances which have been advanced in evidence to prove it apply 
only to acts done for the relief of the public necessities ; and 
it is scarcely (I believe not at all) insinuated that I have practised 
it for any profit of my own." 

The witnesses for the defence were so systematically brow- 
beaten by the prosecution that the elder Mill was provoked 
into remarking that, in the courts of justice " the rule of hu- 
manity and decorum is most grossly and habitually violated by 
the advocate"; and he goes on to say that: "What excites 
the disgust and indignation of every honest spectator is the 
attempt so often made, and so often made successfully, to throw 
an honest witness into confusion and embarrassment, for the 
sake of destroying the weight of his testimony, and defeating 
the cause of truth — the torture unnecessarily and wantonly 
inflicted upon the feelings of an individual to show off a hireling 
lawyer, and prove to the attorneys his power of doing mischief." 

In April, 1794, Burke reported the proceedings of the man- 
agers, and the progress of the trial, to the House of Commons ; 
and, on the 20th June following, Pitt moved a vote of thanks 
to them "for their faithful discharge of the trust reposed in 
them." The motion having been carried by 50 votes to 21, 
the Speaker formally communicated the thanks of the House 
to the managers, and said that their exertions had " conferred 
honour, not on themselves only, but on the House whose credit 



was intimately connected with their own." But the managers, 
according to Mill, " brought a great deal of rhetoric, with papers 
and witnesses, to the trial, and seemed, unhappily, to think that 
rhetoric, papers, and witnesses were enough," for they brought 
"not much knowledge" and "not much dexterity," and "the 
intemperance of the tone and language of Mr. Burke operated 
strongly as a cause of odium." Dr. Horace Wilson, the Boden 
Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford, remarked in his edition of Mill, 
that " Burke's oratory was a tissue of falsehood," and "nothing 
had occurred to justify his exaggeration," to pardon his " un- 
natural appetite for disgusting details," or to excuse his " pre- 
judiced disposition to listen alone to ex parte evidence, and 
an imprudent readiness to credit the exaggerated language of 
complaint." The investigation was not " instituted to ascertain 
truth, but to fix criminality upon Hastings." " Talents the most 
popular, and passions the most ungoverned, were let loose 
against him, and no reasonable man can believe that, if he had 
stood alone in his defence, his innocence would have shielded 
him from the combined assaults of Fox, Sheridan, and Burke." 

Burke claimed to be a " sober and reflecting man." accord- 
ing to the powers that God had given him ; but he lived 
long enough to know that public opinion, which had once been 
in his favour, gradually turned, and pronounced him in the 
wrong. He survived the conclusion of the trial but little more 
than two years ; and though he maintained to the last that 
he had acted rightly, he made a " dying request " to a friend, 
" to erect a cenotaph most grateful to my shade," by clearing 
" my memory from the load which the East India Company, 
the King, Lords, and Commons, and, in a manner, the whole 
British nation (God forgive them), had been pleased to lay as a 
monument upon my ashes." With ill-regulated zeal he devoted 
nearly ten years of his life to the effort to prove Hastings to 
be a miscreant, and he succeeded in gaining for the object of 
his ruthless condemnation public sympathy as a martyr. Had 
it not been for the impeachment, which made him first notorious, 
and then famous, Hastings might have sunk into the obscurity 
in his native land that is the frequent destiny of men who have 
occupied exalted office in India. It was Burke who raised a 



cenotaph to Warren Hastings which does not lose its interest 
for the contemplative observer as the years roll by. 

If it was hard for Hastings to listen to the opprobrious 
language employed by Burke, it was probably more difficult 
for him to hear without visible disgust the panegyrics which 
Mr. Grey, another manager, pronounced on his arch-enemy and 
former colleague, Philip Francis, who was gratifying his spleen 
by assisting the prosecution ; and Miss Fanny Burney states 
that on one occasion he relieved his feelings by writing these 
impromptu lines : — 

It hurts me not that Grey as Burke's assessor 
Proclaims me Tyrant, Robber, and Oppressor, 

Tho' for abuse alone meant ; 
For when he called himself the bosom friend, 
The Friend of Philip Francis ! — I contend 

He made me full atonement. 

The poet Covvper, an old schoolfellow at Westminster of the 
prisoner at the Bar, witnessed the trial, and urged his cousin. 
Lady Hesketh, to do so also, as it was " the trial of a man who 
has been greater and more feared than the Great Mogul him- 
self" Lady Hesketh obtained a ticket of admission, went, 
and was much shocked by the severity of Burke's invective. 
In a letter to the poet, who had also been much scandalised 
by the virulence of the orator, she endeavoured to show that, 
from the days of Tully downwards, public prosecutors had been 
wont to adopt a violent attitude towards persons accused of 
offences against the State. " In order," she said, " to impress 
the minds of his hearers with a persuasion that he himself at 
least was convinced of the criminality of the prisoner, he must 
be vehement, energetic, rapid ; must call him tyrant and traitor, 
and everything else that is odious ; and all this to his face, 
because all this, bad as it is, is no more than he undertakes to 
prove in the sequel ; and if he cannot prove it, he must himself 
appear in a light very little more desirable, and at the best to 
have trifled with the tribunal to which he has summoned him.'' 
Cowper thus expressed his opinion of the accused : — 

Hastings ! I knew thee young, and of a mind, 
While young, humane, conversable, and kind ; 


Nor can I well believe thee— gentle the?! — 
Now grown a villain, and the n'orst of men ; 
But rather some suspect, who have oppress'd 
And worried thee, as not themselves the best. 

In 1792, John Bell, of the British Library, Strand, Bookseller 
to the Prince of Wales, published Letters from Simpkin the 
Second to his dear brother in Wales, containing an humble 
description of the trial of Wain-en Hastings, Esq. The first of 
these Letters describes the procession of Burke into the Hall, 
with " his eloquent tribe " : — 

First, Edmund walks in at the head of the group. 

That powerful chief of that powerful troop — 

What awful solemnity's seen in his gait. 

Whilst the nod of his head beats the time to his feet ! — 

Charles Fox is the second, and close on his right, 

Whose waddle declares he will never go straight ; 

The ruby-fac'd Sheridan enters the third. 

The opposer of Pitt, and the Treasury Board — 

His attention, 'tis said, has so long been directed 

To the National Debts that his own are neglected — 

And in public affairs, when such management's shewn, 

No wonder a man can't think of his own. 

Next Adam comes in with a spit by his side, 

And struts like a turkey-cock, swelling with pride ; 

Then Anstruther follows, that weather-cock elf. 

Who shows how a man may desert from — himself — 

To the Governor Hastings, his praise was profuse ; 

On Prisoner Hastings, he pours forth abuse — 

Then follows young Grey, an exact imitator 

Of the scurrilous Burke ; a most promising prater ; 

Though all must lament that he's under such banners, 

As evil community spoils our good manners. 

Then Pelham, Fitzpatrick, and Windham come forth, 

With Montague, Maitland, and Burgoyne and North, 

Chick Taylor, and Erskine, are join'd in the votes. 

And as Managers known by — a bag and dress coat ; 

Then Francis comes sneaking, with grief in his heart, 

At not being indulg'd with a Manager's part — 

Tho' he now and then steals in the Manager's box. 

To suggest a shrewd question to Burke and Charles Fox. 

The Commons, all those who from riding have leisure 

In order come in, and go out at their pleasure. 

In the concluding letter the author says that : — 



When from engagements I'm free and at leisure 

I visit the Hall as a matter of pleasure . . . 

I could prove that a man, who his youth has expended 

In serving his country, who bravely defended 

Her possessions in times of most eminent danger 

From ill-judging colleagues, and quarrelsome strangers 

Should, when he can serve us in no other way. 

Amuse and divert us — instead of a play. 

The high-polish'd Athens, whene'er she beheld 

A subject whose zeal in her service excell'd 

His equals, with justice that subject expell'd. 

And that mode of treatment was certainly wise 

Howe'er it may seem in Humanity's eyes 

1 here once was a time 

I ingratitude held a detestable crime. 

But since I've conversed with political heroes 

Who are Tituses often, and frequently Neroes, 

I am fully convinc'd that in ev'ry condition 

We should study that only which serves our ambition 

Or adds to our pleasure ; and hence I confess 

I look on the whole as a contest of chess. 

When Burke his game forward endeavours to bring 

Law advances a pawn, and gives check to his King ; 

Burke covers his King, Plomer instantly sees 

An advantage — and lo ! Edmund's Queen is en prise. 

Burke rallies his men, and prepares for the fight, 

Dallas whispers a move, and Burke loses a Knight. 

Burke speaks in a circle, it proves of no use, 

It suggests the idea of playing at goose. 

And hence inexhaustible pleasure I find, 

While a thousand comparisons rise in my mind. 

On the 23rd of April, 1795, or upwards of seven years after 
the proceedings commenced, and during which sixty of the two 
hundred peers who had walked in the procession on the first 
day, and many of the prosecutors in the House of Commons, 
had died, the Lords proceeded to judgment. Each peer in his 
robes was called upon by Lord Chancellor Loughborough, who 
was opposed to the prisoner, to reply to this question : " How 
says your Lordship? Is Warren Hastings, Esquire, guilty or 
not guilty of high crimes and misdemeanours, charged by the 
Commons in the first article of charge?" On this the Peer 
addressed, uncovered his head, and laying his hand upon his 
breast replied, " Not Guilty, upon my honour," or, " Guilty, upon 


my honour." The question was put sixteen times, correspond- 
ing with that number of charges. The first two charges alleged 
high crimes and misdemeanours in various political transac- 
tions ; the next six charges imputed personal corruption ; the 
ninth charge accused Hastings of granting an improper opium 
contract to Stephen Sullivan, a son of the Chairman of the 
Court of Directors ; the tenth accused him of improperly 
borrowing money for the use of Mr. Sullivan ; the eleventh 
accused him of granting an improper contract for bullocks to 
Charles Crofts ; the twelfth accused him of granting a similar 


contract to Sir Charles Blunt ; the thirteenth accused him of 
making irregular and excessive allowances to Sir Eyre Coote ; 
the fourteenth accused him of irregularly appointing James 
Auriol as agent for the purchase of supplies for Madras, etc., 
for 15 per cent, commission ; the fifteenth accused him of 
irregularly appointing John Belli as agent for the purchase of 
stores and provisions for the Garrison of Fort William, with a 
commission of 30 per cent. ; and the sixteenth laid to his charge 
the residue of the impeachment of the Commons. 

According to the report that was published in the Times on 
the following day : — 



To the first of these questions twenty-three Peers said Not Guilty, and 
six said Guilty. The second was determined as the first ; and the third 
was twenty-three to one. The remainder lessened in the Minority, but 
some of them on the Majority ; but the average, upon the whole, was about 
eleven to two in favour of Mr. Hastings. The six who voted in the Minority 
on the first and second questions were the Duke of Norfolk, Earl Carnarvon 
(who was the firit Peer who said " Guilty "), Lords Suffolk, Radnor, Fitz- 
William, and the Lord Chancellor. Of the twenty-three who said Not 
Guilty, were the late Lord Chancellor (Lord Thurlow), the Duke of Bridge- 
water, Duke of Leeds, Duke of Gordon, Marquis Townshend, Earl Moira, 
Earl Mansfield, Earl Leicester, the Archbishop of York, Bishop of Bangor, 
Bishop of Rochester, Lord Fife, Lord Ferrers, Lord Auckland, and nine 

The highest Minority on any of the charges was six, and the largest 
Majority twenty-three. The Duke of Norfolk and the Earl of Suffolk went 
away, after dividing against Mr. Hastings on the two first charges. 

When the numbers were ascertained, Mr. Hastings was called in, and the 
Lord Chancellor informed him that the Peers had acquitted him of all the 
charges of High Crimes and Misdemeanours brought against him by the 
Commons, and that, on paying his fees, he was discharged. He immediately 
quitted the Bar, amidst the congratulations of his friends, and the Court 
adjourned to their own Chamber. 

The number of Bishops who entered in the procession was nine ; of 
these, three gave their votes ; the others waived their privilege on this 
occasion. The Peers who were Managers also declined voting. 

The Verdict of the Court, when pronounced, seemed to meet the general 
sympathy in the Hall, which was manifested by strong expressions of joy on 
every countenance. 

Thus has ended this famous Impeachment, which, for length of time, 
has exceeded any trial in the history of the world, having entered into its 
ninth year of duration. 

The female part of the Royal Family were expected to attend the Trial, 
but none of them were there. The Princess of Wales was to have gone, 
after receiving the Address (of congratulation on her marriage) from the 
Corporation of the City of London, at Carlton House ; but the Trial was 
over before her Royal Highness's Court broke up. Many who went to see 
her were therefore much disappointed. 

The Times offered no further comment. Hastings made, I 
find, the following brief note of the event in his diary : — 

April Thursday. I attended at 12. Was called in about 12.45, and 

ordered to withdraw. The Lords gave the verdict. I was called in and 
informed by the Chancellor that I was acquitted by a great majority, and 
discharged about ten minutes before two. At four I called upon Lord 
Thurlow. The following were my guests : General Calliaud, Sir F. Sykes, 
Sir E. Impey, Mr. Sumner, Mr. J. Sullivan, Colonel Poena, Mr. D. Ander- 


son, Mr. Baber, Mr. Auriol, Mr. Gall, Mr. Thompson, Charles, Major Scott, 
Major Osborne, Sir J. D'Oyley, ^vlr. Lowe, Mr. Plumer, Mr. Dallas, Mr. 
Shawe, T. Woodman, Colonel Hastings, Mr. Payne — in all 22. 

Hastings received from all sides hearty congratulations on 
his acquittal, and not the least interesting of these testimonies 
of goodwill is the following address from Officers of the Bengal 
Army, which is preserved by Miss Winter : — 

Sir, — The Officers of the Bengal Army, bearing in their remembrance 
the wisdom, moderation, and justice of your administration in India, feel a 
very heartfelt satisfaction in congratulating you on your late honourable 
acquittal by the Peers of Great Britain from charges brought against you 
by the House of Commons, and supported by men of the first abilities in 
the nation. The energy and severity v*'ith which you have been for so many 
years prosecuted, the magnanimity and fortitude you have shown during 
your trial, and in declining to solicit support, even when all the power and 
abilities of your native country seemed combined against you, place you 
in a point of view the most envied, the most honourable, for your enemies 
have raised a monument to your fame, in which the justice of our country 
hath recorded the integrity of your mind, and the propriety and necessity 
of your public conduct. May the gratitude of the community you have so 
long, so ably, and so faithfully served be as conspicuous as your merits and 
disinterestedness have been publicly evinced. May your Sovereign, by 
conferring honours upon you, prove the value he has for such a subject, 
and by doing so increase the approbation and attachment of a free and a 
generous people. With us and with the natives of this country, your name 
must ever be revered, and, with Clive's, be handed down with honour, 
respect, and admiration to the latest posterity. 

W^e have, &c. 

1st October, lyg^- 

Hastings was now in his sixty-third year, and was almost 
ruined. His defence had cost him, or rendered him liable for 
^100,000, and his own means were exhausted, and his wife's 
accumulations out of her m.arriage settlement had been greatly 
reduced by the failure of a Dutch firm. But he was not broken 
in spirit as well as in fortune. The prosecution had failed ; and 
he considered that he could reasonably claim indemnification 
from the nation for the expense to which he had been put in 
the vindication of his character as a public servant, since he 
had been assailed by the elected representatives of the public 
in Parliament at the expense of the State. He thereupon 
memorialised the House of Commons, submitted that he was 
entitled to compensation, and prayed for a grant for that pur- 



pose. He forwarded the petition through a friend to Mr. Pitt, 
the Prime Minister, who, after a few days, returned it with a 
short note stating that, " under all the circumstances, he did not 
conceive that he should be justified in submitting the petition 
of the late Governor- General of India to the consideration of 
the Sovereign." In effect, therefore, Pitt refused to accept the 
arbitrament of the tribunal which he had been instrumental in 
creating. It was owing to the unexpected support which he, 
the all-powerful Prime Minister of twenty-eight years of age, 
gave to the manoeuvres of Fox, Burke, and Sheridan, that the 


Opposition succeeded in bringing about the impeachment, and 
it was repugnant to him to do anything tantamount to the 
reversal of his own vote. As Chancellor of the Exchequer he 
had no hesitation in debiting the country with the enormous 
cost of the prosecution ; but he sternly refused to bestir him- 
self to obtain for Hastings compensation from the country for 
the ruinous cost of his defence. What King George the Third 
called Pitt's " long obstinate upper lip " was never more stiff 
than when the name of Hastings was mentioned in his hearing. 
His pride forbade him to forgive the defeat that Hastings 
had inflicted ; and though Hastings was honourably acquitted, 
Pitt was willing to mulct him in the whole of his fortune, 


and to leave him, notwithstanding his eminent services, to starve. 
There was a littleness in this, to say the least of it, that was 
unworthy of so great a man. 

There was a special reason why Pitt might have been to 
Hastings' alleged faults a little blind, and to his actual merits 
a little kind ; for Hastings was accused and acquitted of faults of 
which a Pitt was accused and condemned. The second William 
Pitt was the younger son and intellectual heir of the great 


Pi'i'T {after Gillray). 

statesman who made the family name revered throughout 
Europe ; but that statesman was indebted for his good start 
in public life to the social and parliamentary influence which 
was acquired for the family by his grandfather, Thomas Pitt, 
Governor of Madras from 1698 to 1709, who was dismissed the 
Company's service in the latter year, at a moment's notice, for 
irregular practices. Thomas Pitt returned forthwith to England 
with his ill-gotten wealth, including a diamond, still named after 
himself, which he eventually sold for three millions of livres to 


the Regent Orleans for addition to the Crown Jewels of France. 
He was not impeached, nor in any way molested ; and having 
bought houses, lands, and rotten boroughs, he entered Parlia- 
ment as member for Old Sarum (as his son and grandson did 
in succession after him), lived long, and died in the odour of 

Hastings appealed to the Court of Directors of the East India 
Company, and, being requested to state the amount of his pro- 
perty, he explained his financial position, and then said : " I 
possess the estate of Daylesford in Worcestershire, which cost 
me, including the original purchase, and what 1 have expended 
upon the house, gardens, and lands, about i^6o,ooo. The 
estate is 650 acres, and may be valued at ;^500 clear yearly 
rent. ... In 1789 I purchased the principal part of the 
estate, and about two years since the remainder ; it was the spot 
in which I had passed much of my infancy, and I feel for it an 
affection of which an alien could not be susceptible, because I 
see in it attractions which that stage of my life imprinted on my 
mind, and my memory still retains. It had been the property 
of my family during many centuries, and had not been more 
than seventy-five years out of their possession." 

According to the rough draft of a letter, dated 13th Feb- 
ruary, 1798, in Hastings' handwriting, at the British Museum, 
the Proprietors of the East India Company resolved in June, 
I795» to grant "me the sum of ;^7i,o8o as an indemnification 
for the legal expenses incurred by my impeachment, and an 
annuity of ^5,000 from the ist January, 1795, during the term 
of their present charter, as a reward for my services." But the 
Board of Control, influenced by Pitt, refused to sanction these 
proposals. The Court of Directors then entered into an im- 
portunate correspondence with the Board, and eventually a 
compromise was reluctantly agreed to by the latter. Thereupon 

The Court of Directors were pleased to grant me, as a reward, an 
annuity of ^4,000 for a period of twenty-eight years and a half, to commence 
from the 24th of June, 1785, the day of my arrival in England ; and a loan 
of ^SOjOOO without any interest, for the purpose of relieving me from my 
then present embarrassments. The first of these grants received the 
express confirmation of H.M.'s Ministers ; and I have no doubt that the 
last, which did not require their formal sanction, yet passed with their 


approbation. The Court of Directors in a subsequent arrangement made to 
ensure the future payment of the loan, received from me a mortgage of my 
estate of Daylesford, estimated at ^14,000, and ordered that one half of my 
annuity should be withheld for payment of the remainder. This, of course, 
reduced my annuity to £2,000, and I was under the necessity of mortgaging 
^1,000 of that sum for payment of the interest of debts which still remained 
undischarged, notwithstanding their large and seasonable aid. . . . With 
respect to my expenses, if, in any part of them, I have exceeded the bounds 
of discretion, it has been in such as are now become the great objects of 
taxation, my allotment of assessed taxes amounting (if my computation of 
them is accurate) to ^803. 

After Hastings had repaid 16,000 of the loan the balance 
was remitted, and at a General Court of Proprietors held at 
the India House on the 25th May, 18 14, the resolution of the 
Directors, continuing his pension of ;^4,ooo per annum for life, 
was approved. The liberality which was shewn by the Court of 
Directors to Hastings during the twenty-three years following 
his acquittal, reflected honour both on the Company and on 
the distinguished recipient of its uncovenanted favours. 



The debates in Parliament which culminated in the impeach- 
ment, turned the attention of Gillray, Sayer, and inferior 
caricaturists to Hastings ; and, during the year 1788, a number 
of cartoons were published which reflected the predominant 
opinion about him at that period, and illustrated the manner 
in which an under-trial prisoner of State was liable to be 
treated, " when George the Third was King," by those whose 
avocation it was to " apply the grotesque to purposes of satire." 
Most of the pictures involved an outrageous contempt of Court, 
and gross personal libels ; while some of them were flagrantly 
disloyal ; but no one was prosecuted for their production. The 
artists assumed that, allowing for oratorical exaggeration, and 
the unscrupulousness of party feeling, there was a good deal to 
justify the chief managers of the trial in describing Hastings 
as a monster of iniquity ; yet they invariably represented him 
as a man with a benign expression of countenance, refined 
features, and a dignified bearing, while they usually depicted Fox 
as an unshaven, vulgar, and sensual-looking man, with large 
hands, who was prone to violence of gesture when declaiming. 
It was known that the King and Queen sympathised with 
Hastings ; it was suspected, on scanty evidence, that they had, 
on his return home, accepted from him some costly tokens 
of his respect ; and it was believed that they were avaricious ; 
so the caricaturists pilloried them unmercifully. The Chan- 
cellor, Lord Thurlovv, who was the staunch friend of Hastings, 
was also handled roughly by the artists, who generally depicted 
him as a man with a strong face somewhat resembling that 
of the late Chancellor, Lord Herschell. Hastings scorned to 
take notice of the cartoons, though they were calculated to 



excite prejudice and hatred against him ; and, within a year, 
public opinion began to veer round in his favour, and the 
caricaturists, having done their worst, then left him severely- 
alone. /\s a certain historical value attaches to these works 
of art, I will enumerate the more important of them that are 
preserved in the British Museum. 

In a picture, dated February, 1/88, published by Rich, of 
Fleet Street, Hastings is represented in a cart, as the " Governor 


of Rue-peas." The cart, which is full of pea-pods, is drawn by 
a pony, led by Thurlow, who cries : " Fine Begum Hastings ! a 
lack a peck ! " Hastings exclaims : Truth must come out, 
there's no denial " ; and Burke, who is a spectator, replies : 
" You'll have a fair trial." Beneath the picture are the following 
lines : — 

He who acts upright in his station 
Dreads not the censure of the nation, 
For Truth o'er all will yet prevail 
While Justice holds her equal scale. 
P)e candid then to every party, 
And prove your mind is true and hearty • 



Time will determine what is right, 
And banish envy, malice and spite. 

In a badly executed caricature, without date, published by 
Dicksee, 195, Strand, Hastings is depicted devouring the body 
of an Indian woman, and trampling on five other bodies of 
natives of India. It is entitled *' The prodigious monster arrived 
from the East." 

A small caricature, dated 8th February, published by 


Doughty, 19, Holborn, and entitled " Court Cards, the best to 
deal with ! " shows Hastings in Oriental costume, with the King 
on the one hand, as King of Clubs, and Thurlow, on the other 
hand, as the Knave of that suit. 

On the 1 2th February, a picture, entitled " H — st — ngs ! ho ! 
rare H — st — gs ! " appeared, in which Hastings is shown trund- 
ling the King and Thurlow in a wheelbarrow, to illustrate the 
maxim that " What a man buys he may sell," which is quoted 
from Blackstone. 

In the same month Holland published a cartoon showing 
Hastings being cupped by Pitt, who says : " Courage, my dear 


friend, you will feel wonderful benefit from this bleeding ! " 
Hastings replies : " I trust entirely to your skill for my re- 

On the 1st March Doughty published a cartoon, entitled 
" Such things may be : a tale for future times." Hastings, in 
a cart, with his hands bound behind him, is seen under a 
gallows ; Fox, as the executioner, is placing the noose over his 
head ; Burke, as the chaplain, stands close by ; Xorth holds 

"blood on thunder." 

the head of the horse in the shafts, and Sheridan eagerly 
pushes the cart from behind to secure a " drop " for the cul- 
prit. Hastings exclaims : *' Walpole said, every man had his 
price ; but, alas ! I never could find out any of your prices." 
Burke mutters : " A poor atonement this for millions ! " To 
which Fox replies : " A poor atonement do you call it, Ned ? 

Egad, it would have been a devil of a job for me if my F r 

had made such an atonement for unaccounted methods." North 
enquires of Sheridan : " Don't you remember, Sheri, that my 
Ri^ht Honourable friend often threatened to bring me to this, 



or the block ? " Sheridan reph"es : *' Psha ! Fred, you know 
that vv^as only to frighten you from your station ; and drive on, 
or our friend Edmund will stand here preaching all the day ! " 

On the same day Forres, of 3, Piccadilly, published a cartoon, 
entitled " Blood on Thunder ; fording the Red Sea." Hastings, 
holding in each arm a bag labelled i^4,ooo,ooo, is being borne 
on the shoulders of Thurlow, through a sea of blood, on the 
surface of which float the heads and bodies of his victims, and ■ 
some instruments of punishment. 

On the 1 8th March Doughty published a large picture, en- 
titled "The struggle of a Bengal Butcher and his Imp-pie." 
Hastings is shown in the centre in Oriental dress, being 
dragged to the right by Thurlow and Satan, and to the left 
by Burke, Fox, Sheridan, and two others. Before him is a tray, 
on which small imps are dancing. Burke exclaims : " For the 
sake of injured millions I and my worthy friends and colleagues 
demand these wretches as victims to public Justice ! " Thurlow 
replies : " And for the sake of consigned millions I, with the 
assistance of my old friend and colleague here, am resolved to 
protect these worthy gentlemen ! " 

On the 28th March, 1788, Forres published a cartoon by 
Gillray, entitled " A dish of Mutton Chops " ; in which Hastings, 
Thurlow, and Pitt are represented at dinner, feeding ravenously 
off the calf-like head of the King. Pitt is carving the tongue ; 
Hastings is extracting an eye ; and Thurlow is helping himself 
v/ith two spoons to the brains. The trencher, on which the 
head rests, bears the inscription, " Mal-y-pense," and a Royal 

On the loth April Berry, of Oxford Street, published a cari- 
cature, representing Hastings in Oriental dress, proceeding in 
state to pay a visit to a friendly Prince. He is smoking a 
hookah, borne by an attendant, the fumes of which are labelled 
Articles of Impeachment," and he exclaims : " Old care in a 
whiff of tobacco I'll smoke." Thurlow holds a state umbrella 
over his head. There is a gibbet in the corner, marked " For 
the Governor " ; near to which Fox and Burke, as two dogs, 
are lurking. Fox says to Burke : " Edmund ! I'll finish the 
law." And Burke replies : " I'll bring the culprit to justice." 



On the 27th April, a large picture by Gillray, entitled "The 
Westminster Hunt," appeared. 

Thurlow is represented as a jockey, riding a donkey with the 
King's head, and whipping back the hounds. North having 
been ridden over is insensible ; one of the forelegs of the donkey 
is trampling on Burke ; Francis, Fox, and Sheridan are in 
pursuit of a hyaena, with the head of Hastings, and a tail marked 
" diamonds and rupees." Hastings is reaching the shelter of St. 


James's Palace, and is passing between the sentries Rose and 
Pitt. Thurlow shouts, " Back ! back ! " 

On the 1st May there was published a caricature, bearing the 
initials "J. S." and purporting to be the work of Sayer, but 
attributed notwithstanding to the pencil of Gillray. It is en- 
titled " The Princess's Bow, alias the Bow Begum." 

It represents the Begum of Oudh (whose alleged wrongs at 
the hands of Hastings furnished Burke with the materials for 
some of his most bitter denunciations) seated, receiving the 
abject homage of Burke, Fox, and Sheridan ; while Francis, 
secreted beneath the seat, says : " I am at the bottom of this." 
There is a picture above the seat, entitled " Parturiunt montes. 


nascitur ridiciiliis musl' showing a mouse emerging from a hole 
at the foot of a mountain. 

Six days after the publication of the above caricature there 
appeared a parody of it, undoubtedly by Gillray, entitled " The 
Bow to the Throne, alias the Begging Bow." 

In this picture Hastings, in Oriental costume, occupies a 
throne, and holds out bags of pagodas and rupees to Lord 
Chancellor Thurlow and Pitt respectively, who are eagerly 
grasping at the gifts. Hastings says : Dear gentlemen ! This 

" THE princess's BOW, ALIAS THE BOW BEGUM." 

is too little ; your modesty really distresses me ! " Before the 
footstool the Queen is shown, on her knees, kissing the toe 
of one of Hastings' shoes, and clutching a bag, inscribed 
" ^200,000," in her right hand. She holds a box tightly under 
her left arm. This box — according to Wright and Evans's 
account of Gillray's caricatures (Bohn, 1851) — is "supposed to 
contain the celebrated diamond sent by the Nabob of Benares " ; 
but the short word commencing with " B " and ending with " E " 
points rather to " Bute." The King, also on his knees, is 


helping himself freely to the coin of which the throne is full. 
He exclaims : " I am at the bottom of it ! " The picture be- 
hind Hastings shows a monster bag, labelled " i^4,ooo,ocx)," 
with two arms outstretched, and hands from which showers of 
coin fall on three worshippers on their knees before it. Beneath 
the picture on the frame are the words, " Out of it came not a 
little tiny mouse, but a mountain of delight." Behind Thurlow 
and Pitt are the hats and hands of various claimants for Hast- 


ings' generosity, as well as the Garter and Star, and the badge 
of the Bath suspended from a broad ribbon. 

In a large picture by Gillray, entitled " Market Day," dated 
2nd May, 1788, the alleged venality of the House of Lords is 
illustrated. Thurlow, with a purse in his right hand and the 
mace in his left, is standing like a drover, before a group of 
cattle having the heads of peers, whom he is supposed to have 
bought. In the background some of the cattle are upsetting a 
watch-box on which Burke, Fox, and Sheridan are perched. Pitt 
and Dundas are in a balcony above, '* at the sign of the Crown," 



smoking long pipes, and holding pots of beer, regardless of the 
scene below. Hastings, mounted on a sorry steed, is carrying 
away a calf with the head of the King, that has its legs tied. 

A large picture, entitled " The Political Banditti assaulting the 
Saviour of India," attributed to Gillray, was published on the 
nth May, by William Holland, 66, Drury Lane. Hastings is 
represented riding a camel, and being assaulted by Burke, North, 
and Fox. Burke is armed with a blunderbuss, which he has 


just discharged at Hastings. Suspended from his shoulders is 
a pouch, labelled " Charges " ; and he is partly clad in armour. 
Hastings, wearing the typical costume of an opulent Oriental, 
is armed with a shield, labelled " Shield of Honour " above the 
Royal Crown, and on this shield he is receiving the bullets dis- 
charged from Burke's blunderbuss. He has an undisturbed and 
benevolent expression of countenance, as though he is quite 
prepared to meet the " charges." Two large bags, labelled re- 


spectively Saved to the Company," and " Eastern Gems for the 
British Crown," with a roll inscribed " Territories acquired by 
W. Hastings," are suspended from the camel's neck, and on the 
back of the animal are two other bags labelled " Lacks of Rupees 
added to the Revenue," and " Rupees ditto," respectively. North 
is detaching the bag labelled " Lacks of Rupees added to the 
Revenue." He wears a helmet and breastplate, and is armed 
with a notched scimitar, on the scabbard of which the words 
American Subjugation " are inscribed. Fox is in the act of 
making a stab with a dagger at Hastings' back. His counte- 
nance is distorted by passion, and his attitude is indicative of 
intense excitement that offers a great contrast to the placid 
demeanour which is conceded to Hastings in all the caricatures 
under notice. 

A cartoon, entitled " State Jugglers," was published on the 
1 6th May by Forres. Hastings is shown on a platform between 
Thurlow and Pitt. From his mouth are issuing streams of coins, 
for which the crowd beneath are scrambling. Flames of fire are 
being ejected from Thurlow's mouth, and ribbons from the mouth 
of Pitt. Fox, on the shoulders of Burke, is in the background, 
stretching out his hat to catch some of the coins. The King 
and Queen are on a see-saw overhead. Beneath the sketch are 
the following lines : — 

Who wrought such wonders as might make 
Egyptian sorcerers forsake 
Their baffled mockeries, and own 
The palm of magic is ours alone. 

In. a large cartoon, called "The Trial," dated 17th May, and 
purporting to be by " H. H.," Thurlow is represented on the 
judgment seat. To his right is Fox, as Shylock, with a knife in 
his hand, exclaiming : " My deeds upon my head, I crave the 
law!" Behind Fox are Burke, Sheridan, and others. To the 
left of Thurlow is Law, as an advocate, pointing with his right 
hand to Hastings behind him, and holding a heavy purse of 
rupees in his left. Hastings wears Oriental costume, and ex- 
claims : " He seeks my life, his reason will I know." 

In a picture, entitled " Opposition Coaches," about three feet 
long and ten inches broad, published 20th May, 1788, by Forres, 


and bearing no signature, but which is evidently the work of 
Gillray, two four-in-hand coaches are shown starting from a 
sign-post in the middle of the picture. The post bears two in- 
dicating hands — one, pointing to the left, being inscribed, "To the 
Slough of Despond"; and the other, pointing to the right, being 
inscribed, "To the Temple of Honour," respectively. The 
Parliamentary coach on the left hand, proceeding to the left, 
is descending a hill into the slough. It is " Licensed by Act of 



Parliament, Pro Bono Publico," according to the inscription on 
i.he panels. Burke is driving. Immediately behind him is Fox, 
armed with a blunderbuss, and showing great alarm. There are 
four persons inside the coach. The horses have human heads. 
In a basket behind the coach are scrolls labelled " Magna 
Charta," " Bill of Rights," and " Impeachment of W. Hastings." 
The Royal coach on the right hand, proceeding to the right, is 
being driven furiously by Thurlow up a steep hill, and the four 
horses have the heads of Dundas, Arden, Grenville, and Sidney 
respectively. (I am compelled by the exigencies of space to 


dispense with the leaders in my sketch.) On the roof of the 
coach the Queen is seated, holding in her right hand a basket 
containing a goose, and in her left another basket containing 
'^golden eggs." Hastings occupies the seat of honour within 
the coach, and opposite to him is a stout lady wearing a crown, 
intended doubtless for Mrs. Hastings. The King sits behind in 
the rumble, armed with a gun. Under the Parliamentary coach 
the words " O Liberty ! O Virtue ! O my Country ! " are in- 
scribed ; while beneath the other coach, which has the Royal 
arms on the panels, superscribed " Licensed by Royal Autho- 
rity," these lines appear : — 

The very stones look up to see 
Such very gorgeous Harlotry 
Shaming an honest Nation. 

Public interest in the trial began to flag before the expiration 
of 178S, and, as has been said, the caricaturists then began to 
leave Hastings alone. Later on the violence of the prosecution 
prompted sympathy for the accused, and suggested the idea 
that Burke had gone mad on the subject. On the 8th May, 
1789, Aitken, of Castle Street, Leicester Square, published a 
cartoon, entitled "Cooling the Brain, or the little ]\Iajor shaving 
the shaver." 

In this picture Burke is represented as a lunatic chained to 
the ground, being shaved b\' Major Scott, Hastings' Parliamen- 
tary agent. Hastings carrying a sack, labelled "^4,000,000," 
is being welcomed to St. James's, and Burke exclaims : " Ha ! 
miscreant, plunderer, murderer of Nuncomar, where wilt thou 
hide thy head now ? " The following lines are appended to the 
sketch : — 

Madness 1 thou chaos of the brain 
What art, that pleasure giv'st a pain, 
Tyranny of Fancy's reign, 
Mechanic Fancy that can build 
\'ast labyrinths and mazes wild 
With rude, disjointed, shapeless measure, 
Fill'd with horror, fill'd \y|h pleasure, 
Shapes of horror that wf)uld even 
Cast doubt of mercy upon Heaven. 

On the 8th May, 1795, or a few days after Hastings had been 


acquitted, a cartoon was published illustrative of " The Last 
Scene of the Managers' Farce," which " lies in an old Hall, for- 
merly a Court of Law." The bust of Hastings, surmounting a 
pedestal, occupies the centre of a theatrical stage, with bright 
light radiating from it. The pedestal bears the inscription : 
" Vij'tus repulscE nescia sordidce incontaineninatis fidget Jiono- 
ribiisy Dense fumes are passing away. Above the fumes the 

"cooling the brain, or the little major shaving the shaver." 

figures of Lord Loughborough and Lord Thurlow are shown, 
and the former exclaims : " Black, upon my honour ! " while the 
latter replies : " Not black, upon my honour ! " On the right 
hand is a stage-box, occupied by Fox, holding a magnifying 
glass, and other Managers. On the side of the box is the track 
of a snail, marked " 1787-1795." Near the box is a cauldron 
that contains, according to the explanatory notes at the foot 
of the picture, " ingredients mixed up by " the Managers " to 
blacken a character out of their reach." Burke, the principal 


performer, having " out-Heroded Herod, retires from the stage 
in a passion at seeing the farce likely to be damned," and makes 
" an exit in funio " by a trap-door to Hades — a " Court below to 
'Which the Managers retire upon quitting the stage." Francis 
is shewn as the prompter, peeping from behind the stage. He 
filled " no character in the farce, but was very useful behind the 



In the second year of his trial Warren Hastings sold his 
estate at Windsor for ^^4,300, and he bought, ostensibly on 
behalf of Mrs. Hastings, for i^8,ooo, from John, Viscount 
Bateman, the lease of a large house overlooking Hyde Park, 
London, then known as No. i. Park Lane, which that peer 
had taken for ninety-one years from Lord Grosvenor of Eaton, 
in 1773. He remained in this house during the remaining six 
years of his trial, and during his negotiation for the purchase 
of the Daylesford estate. In 1797 he determined to retire 
permanently to Worcestershire ; and he sold the house, for 
Mrs. Hastings, to Neil, Earl of Rosebery, great-grandfather 
of the late Prime Minister, with the fixtures and effects, for 
i^i 1,249. Messrs. Christie Sharp & Harper, who acted as house- 
agents, described the house as a " noble, spacious, and singu- 
larly elegant mansion," that was furnished "in a superior style 
of taste and elegance, forming a most complete riis in Jirbe " ; 
and had " stabling for eight horses, three coach-houses, and 
numerous attached and detached offices." 

Shortly before Hastings relinquished possession of the house 
he had eleven paintings of scenes in India, by the " late in- 
genious artist Hodges " — to quote from the catalogue — re- 
moved to Christie's rooms in Pall Mall, where they were sold 
by auction. They were illustrative of scenes or buildings in 
Calcutta, Benares, Agra, Lucknow, Bangalpoor, Tilliagarry, 
Chunasghar, Sungulterry, Ranjamahal, and Gwalior respec- 
tively ; and though they were sold one by one, they realized 
in all no more than ^^125. As they were souvenirs by no 
mean artist of places that Hastings had visited, or been asso- 
ciated with during the most notable period of his life, and as 



there was a large amount of wall space available for pictures 
at Daylesford House, it is surprising that he allowed them to be 
sold outright, instead of sending them down to Worcestershire 
to add to the attractions of his new home. He was caused 
much annoyance by the miserable results of the sale, and, in a 
letter from Daylesford to Mr. Richard Johnson, his banker,^ 
he said that few things had " given me so much vexation as 
the disgraceful sale of my pictures. I would rather have burnt 
them." He was not prepared to assert that the auctioneer was 
wholly to blame, but " my newspaper never contained an ad- 
vertisement of the sale" ; and though he was in town, he was 
never informed of " the necessity of giving the auctioneer 
authority to buy in the pictures till it was impossible for it to 
reach him." He was " particularly vexed at the mean price at 
which Shuja Dowlah's portrait sold, because I never intended 
to part with it, and do not know how it came to be joined to 
the rest." He had intended to "cut it down to a kit-cat." He 
asked Mr. Johnson to endeavour to repurchase it for him, " for 
a sum not much exceeding that at which it was knocked down." 
Warned by the fate of his pictures, he was determined that — 

My stud shall not come to the same shameful end. I have thoughts of 
advertising them for private sale, and fixing, and publishing their prices. 

^ According to the Hividbook of London Bankers^ Messrs. Edwards, 
Smith, Templer, Middleton, Johnson &: Wedgwood, to which firm the 
above-mentioned gentleman belonged, were established l^ankers in 1794, 
at 18, Stratford Place, Oxford Street, London. In the following year Mr. 
Smith's name did not appear among the partners of the firm. In 1805 the 
style of the firm became Davison, Noel, Templer, Middleton, Johnson & 
Wedgwood, carrying on business at 34, Pall Mall. In 1807 the name of 
Johnson disappeared from the firm, and the business was carried on by 
the other partners until 1816, when this banking house ceased to exist, 
and many of the customers were recommended to transfer their accounts 
to Messrs. Coutts & Co., w^ho still have possession of their ledgers, etc. 
Their premises were taken by Messrs. Hopkinson, who occupied them 
until 1 8 19, when they were acquired by Messrs. Ransom »S: Co. Both Mr. 
and Mrs. Hastings transferred their accounts to Messrs. Coutts &: Co. on 
the failure of Messrs. Davison & Co. On the death of Mr. Hastings the 
balance of his account was, in accordance with his will, carried to the credit 
of his wife, who in the following October transferred the amount from 
Messrs. Coutts & Co. to Messrs. Gosling & Co. 


which shall not be varied. If I do this, I will send the rest of my four-year- 
olds to be included in the same advertisement, and to stand in the same 
stables for a fixed time. In my agricultural experiments I have been success- 
ful almost to a prodigy, and wish I had confined my experiments to that 
line. Yet it is a pity. I could have produced a pure breed of Arabian 
horses, and provided for the perpetual increase of it in this country, if I had 
met with encouragement. But I fear I have had both ignorance, poverty, 
and taxes to defeat my purpose. 

,A deed was drawn up which set forth that the purchase 
money of the house was " the only proper money of the 
separate estate " of Mrs. Hastings, and had by her been " really 
and bona fide paid " out of her " sole and separate estate," with 
" the privity, consent, and approbation " of her husband. It was 
then stated that, of the sum received from Lord Rosebery, 
£i,24g was paid into the "own proper hands " of Mrs. Hastings, 
and i^io,ooo was settled on her son. Sir Charles Imhoff, and his 
wife on their marriage. Mrs. Hastings wrote to Mr. Johnson, 
the banker, to thank him for all the trouble he had taken about 
" my house in Park Lane," and remarked, " What trouble his 
Lordship has given us ! By the Lord ! I would not sell another 
house to him if I had one to dispose of, and he wish to be 

Mr. George Nesbit Thompson, Hastings' former Secretary in 
India, wrote from Panton Lodge to Hastings on the 13th 
March, 1797, and said : — 

Before I can venture to rejoice in Mrs. Hastings' disposal of her house, 
I must know that the sacrifice has cost her no pain. Sincerely, however, 
and without any hesitation, do I pray that, as it does her honour, so it may 
not impair her future happiness. Circumstanced as you have been. Wealth 
could not have elevated you. Comparative Poverty does. Riches and 
Honours are the ordinary rewards of ordinary virtues. There is no truth 
better established than that persecution and want have been the usual meed 
of transcendent merit from the days of Palamedes to these. 

Lord Rosebery was not wealthy, and Hastings was caused 
some anxiety about his being allowed to take possession of the 
house before he had paid a deposit, and signed an agreement. 
"Your letter" — he wrote from Daylesford, on the 27th March, 
to Mr. Johnson — " has done what the impeachment could not. 
It has broke my rest. If you have given his Lordship posses- 
sion, or suffered him to take it, without receiving his agreement. 


nothing but a long suit in Chancery can force him to pay the 
price of the house and furniture, unless he considers his honour 
a sufficient pledge. I shall not recover the tranquillity of my 
mind till I hear from you, if then. Yours affectionately." But 
two days later he informed Mr. Johnson that " all is well," for 
he had written to Lord Rosebery requesting that he will pay, 
or cause to be paid to Messrs. Edwards, Temple & Co., whom I 
have constituted my Attorneys, the remaining sums when they 
shall become due, for the price of my late house in Park Lane, 
and the appraisement of the furniture appertaining to it, and to 
take their receipts for the same as a full acquittal." In this 
letter Hastings refers to " my late house," although, according 
to the deed above mentioned, the property formed part of the 
" sole and separate estate " of his wife. She had no fortune 
when she married him ; and it is probable that he gave her 
the "only proper money" of her "separate estate" on the eve 
of his trial, as security against the contingency of a conviction 
that might have been followed by the confiscation of everything 
belonging to him. 

In 1808 Lord Rosebery^ sold the house to the iith Duke of 
Somerset ; who bequeathed it to his son, the 12th Duke; who 
left it, on his death in 1886, to his daughter. Lady Hermione 
Graham ; who died in 1888, and bequeathed it to her husband, 
Sir Richard Graham ; by whom it was sold, in 1890, to Mr. 
George Murray Smith, of Messrs. Smith & Elder, the publishers, 
the present occupant. 

^ Shortly after he entered into possession of the house Lord Rosebery 
enquired what rates and taxes Hastings had been in the habit of paying- 
during his occupancy of it ; and Hastings stated that he was charged 
as follows : — Duty on windows, commutation tax, duty on houses, servants, 
horses, and carriages, at 10 per cent., ^^45 ; land tax, ^"18 ; parochial rates 
for St. George's, Hanover Square, £^0 ; parochial rates for Maryle- 
bone, I2s. 6d. : total, /104 17.^. 6(t It is interesting to compare these 
rates and taxes in 1797 with those that arc charged on the same house 
in 1894; and Mr. Murray Smith informs me that he pays: — Parochial 
rates, ^256 6s. ^d. \ inhabited house duty, ^48 155-.; and income tax, 
£y] \%s. 4d. : total, ^342 19^. gd. The ground rent is now ^300, and the 
house is rated for parochial purposes at ^1,084 per annum. The property 
is assessed at ^1,300 per annum for income tax. 



The house is now known as 40, Park Lane. It is next to the 
Oxford Street end of the Lane, and commands a fine view of 
the northern portion of Hyde Park. It is not remarkable for 
its architectural features, and it is, probably, a great deal larger 
now than it was a century since ; but, even allowing for the 
additions that have been made to it by successive occupants, it 
must have been an important residence, in the best part of 





town, in Hastings' time ; and, as he was able to occupy it 
during the long ordeal of his trial, and to keep up appearances, 
and dispense a generous hospitality as it was his invariable 
practice to do, he must have had the command of no in- 
considerable income while he lived there, notwithstanding the 
frightful expense of his defence. There is a handsome porch 
to the house, through which Thurlow, Law, Plumer, Dallas, and 
many other friends of Hastings must have repeatedly passed. 


The purchase of Daylesford entailed a longer negotiation, 
Hastings said, " than would have served for the acquisition of 
a province." His importunity at length prevailed, and Air. 
Knight accepted 1,424, and an annuity of ;^ioo a year for 
himself and his wife for the estate. Hastings then pulled down 
the dilapidated mansion, and erected the present edifice on its 
site ; and he spared no expense in laying out the grounds. 
Thus it was that the estate represented in the end an invest- 
ment of as much as ^60,000. " From first to last," says Air. 
Gleig, " it was a conspicuous trait in Hastings' character that he 
never put the smallest value upon money." Even the drain of 
the protracted trial on his resources did not hinder him from 
continuing his lavish expenditure on the beautification of his 
property. It was a passion with him to build and to plant, and 
had it not been for the liberality of the Court of Directors, that 
passion would have led him into the Bankruptcy Court. The 
fact that the estate realized, about seventy years after he 
acquired it, only half the sum that he spent upon it, notwith- 
standing the rise in the value of landed property in the inter- 
val, proves that he spent too much on the gratification of the 
dream of his life. 

In order to form some ornamental rock-work in his grounds, 
and to make an island in his lake, Hastings caused a number 
of large stones to be removed from the summit of a hill in 
Adlestrop parish, where they had lain from time immemorial. 
Once upon a time, according to a local tradition, an old woman, 
named Alice, was driving her geese to pasture upon this hill, 
when she was met by a " weird sister," who demanded alms, 
and, upon being refused, transformed the geese into so many 
stones, which consequently obtained the name of the Grey 
Geese of Adlestrop Hill. "A clerk of Oxenford," who paid a 
visit to Hastings at Daylesford, wrote a ballad, in 1808, in 
honour of the Grey Geese, and contributed it to the Gcntlc- 
iiians Magazine. Having related how the old woman was 
treated by the witch, the poet proceeded to say, that she was 
offered some consolation for the loss of her geese by the fol- 
lowing prediction : — 



But pitying fate at length shall abate 

The rigour of this decree, 
By the aid of a sage in a far distant age : 

And he comes from the East country. 
A Pundit his art to this seer shall impart, 

Where'er he shall wave his wand, 
The hills shall retire, and the valleys aspire, 

And the waters usurp the land. 
Then Alice thy flock their charm shall unlock, 

And pace with majestic stride 
From Adlestrop heath to Daylesford beneath, 

To lave in their native tide. 
And one shall go peep like an isle o'er the deep, 

Another delighted wade, 
At the call of the wizard to moisten his gizzard. 

By the side of a fair cascade. 
This sage to a dame shall be wedded, whose name 

Praise, honour, and love shall command. 
By poets renown'd, and by courtesy crown'd 

The queen of that fairy-land ! 

In 1807 an anonymous bard published a poem, entitled 
Daylesford, which he dedicated to Hastings. He described 
the meadows, lawns, mimic isle, and breezy copse " of the 
estate, and exclaimed : " How dear to Meditation is the scene ! " 
Then, as the Gentleman s Magazine remarked, with his mind 
dwelling more or less consciously on the " Man of Ross," he 
proclaimed the beneficence of Hastings : — 

For who yon smiling hamlet can survey. 
The rising farm now rescued from decay, 
The churchway path repair'd, the warm-clad poor, 
The garden fence that skirts the cottage door. 
Who can unmov'd survey, what breast so dark 
But at the sight would catch a kindred spark ? 
Till rous'd, and bursting into kindled fire. 
It glows, it burns to be what it admires. 

The house which Hastings erected is built of the pale grey 
stone of the neighbourhood, on an eminence, in an undulating 
and well-wooded park of about 600 acres, which is entered by 
three lodges. The style of architecture is unpretentious, but 
it is favourable to internal comfort. At the chief entrance is a 
portico that leads to a large hall with a tesselated pavement, 
whence access is obtained to a library of considerable size, 



fitted with carved marble mantelpiece, decorated cornice, etc., 
and to a dining-room, 37 feet by 21, with a bay window 
opening on to a lawn, and fitted with massive marble mantel- 
piece, gilded cornice, etc. By a corridor, or picture galler}^ 50 
feet long, with polished oak floor, the reception rooms are 
approached. These rooms, which have a southerly aspect, 
include a drawing-room, 40 feet by 25, well decorated, with 
windows opening on to a stone balcony overlooking the garden, 
lake, and park ; a smaller drawing-room, 26 feet by 22, with a 
particularly handsome marble mantelpiece, showing Mahomedan 
female figures in a zenana, and a ceiling painted with emble- 
matical subjects ; a morning room, also 26 feet by 22, opening 
on to the terrace ; a circular vestibule, with a roof supported by 
Ionic columns ; a billiard-room, 26 feet by 22, and a smoking- 
room nearly as large. The next floor is reached by a fine oak 
staircase, and a wide corridor. Here are five large bedrooms, 
of which four were decorated in Hastings' time in white, buff, 
pink, and green respectively. There is also a circular boudoir, 
decorated in white and gold, like the chief bedroom, with a 
lofty dome roof, supported by Ionic columns, and three windows 
commanding beautiful views over hill and dale. A stone stair- 
case leads to the upper floor, on which are five rooms for 
bachelors, and six for servants. The offices on the ground floor 
include a large kitchen, a scullery, a pantry, a plate closet, a 
butler's room, a housekeeper's room, a still room, a store room, 
a servants' hall, and five other rooms for servants ; wine and 
beer cellars ; and an enclosed court surrounded by a dairy, a 
bake-house, a game larder, a fuel house, a carpenter's shop, a 
laundry, a drying closet, and five bedrooms for men servants, 
surmounted by a clock tower. The stabling includes a large 
enclosed courtyard with six carriage houses, a 6-stall stable, a 
4-stall stable, a 3-stall stable, twelve loose boxes for hunters, 
two harness rooms, and rooms above for coachmen and grooms. 
The highly cultivated kitchen garden is surrounded by a wall 
covered with fruit trees, and contains houses for growing grapes, 
pines, melons, peaches, cucumbers, and mushrooms. There is 
also an outer garden. The pleasure grounds were laid out by a 
notable landscape gardener, and are very beautiful, with their 


extensive lawns of velvet-like grass, their beds of flowers, and 
their clumps of fine trees. The plantations are exceedingly 
attractive. They contain a great variety of indigenous trees, 
including some grand elms and beeches, and many exotic trees 
that Warren Hastings introduced and acclimatised. There are 
also several charming lakes, that are believed to be full of fish, 
and alongside one of these is a "romantic footpath that leads 
to the village. By the carriage road the house is nearly a 


mile from the lod^e close to the villas^e. At the two farms on 
the estate Hastings unsuccessfully endeavoured to cross English 
sheep and goats with breeds from India. 

Furniture, like apparel, " oft proclaims the man." This must 
have been peculiarly the case in the days antecedent to those 
in which upholsterers are prepared at short notice to supply the 
want of good taste in a customer. Hastings was remarkably 
attached to his home ; and its surroundings and embellishments 
testified to his innate love of the beautiful in Nature and Art. 


The cruel ordeal throuj^h which he passed at Westminster Hall 
did not, as it might well have done, render all things associated 
with India distasteful to him. He was proudly conscious that 
he had deserved well of his country, however ill the represen- 
tatives of that country had acknowledged his services ; and, 
having fought a good fight against great odds and much pre- 
judice, it was an abiding source of gratification to him to recall 
the incidents of the best years of his life, which he had given, 
in the society of his wife Marian, to India. Consequently, his 
" halls, so large, were hung around " not with trophies of the 
chase, for he was no sportsman (though Francis, as has been 
stated, realized to his cost that he could shoot straight), but with 
paintings, drawings, and illuminated parchments that recalled to 
his mind scenes and studies of the far East, and suggested topics 
of conversation with the guests whom he loved to have around 
his table. He never forgot that he had filled an eminent office 
under the Company and Crown ; and he regarded it as to some 
extent incumbent upon him to adopt a style of living in keep- 
ing with the position which had once been his. 

It was in his drawing-room that this feeling was most mani- 
fest to visitors. The four long windows of this apartment were 
hung with pale blue satin curtains, with deep white satin bor- 
ders, painted in flowers, and ornamented with silver lace and 
spangles. The furniture was for the most part made of ivory. 
There were two sofas of solid ivory, of Oriental design, superbly 
carved and richly gilded, the elbows finished with tigers' heads, 
and the back and seat covered en suite with the curtains. There 
were nine solid ivory elbow chairs, corresponding in style and 
finish with the sofas ; and a solid ivory table, beautifully carved 
and gilded, fitted with drawers with silver locks and handles, 
and covered with fine green cloth, edged with silver lace. There 
were also two solid ivory ottomans, gilt, and covered en suite 
with the sofas ; and a pair of carved ivory Oriental official 
staffs, ornamented with silver-gilt bands and wires, and mounted 
in ebonised and gilt frames and silk mounts, to form fire-screens. 
There were two Oriental fly-flaps, the handles carved out of the 
finest jade, mounted and inlaid with gold, and set with rubies 
and emeralds. A superb suite of Persian chain mail, inlaid 



with gold, was arranged near a variety of Oriental weapons ; 
specimens of old Derby, old Dresden, and Sevres china were 
displayed on side tables, and in ornamental cabinets, together 
with alabaster vases, ivory caskets, and specimens of Indian 
silver filigree work resembling the finest lace. There were 
also eight ebonised and gilt chairs, covered with blue silk, and 
banded with spangles; a Brussels carpet fitted to the room; and 
other accessories. 

The other rooms were furnished in a comfortable manner 
without anything very distinctive about them, except the pic- 
tures on the walls ; but, in the boudoir of Mrs. Hastings, there 
were, among other things, six solid ivory chairs, delicately painted 
and gilt ; and a richly gilt square foot ottoman, covered in crim- 
son velvet, and embroidered in silver-gilt lace. Hastings was 
very partial to furniture made of ivory. It has been said that in 
one of his earliest letters to his wife, after her departure from 
India, he alluded to his own "ivory cot." In one dated Calcutta, 
14th November, 1784, he stated that "he had hastened his 
return from Benares, via Buxar, Patna, and Bugulpoor." " The 
Begum," he continued, "sent me more than one message expres- 
sive of her disappointment at my passing the city, as she had 
prepared an elegant display of your couches and chairs for my 
entertainment. These are since arrived, with a letter for you, 
recommended most earnestly to my care. There are two 
couches, eight chairs, and two footstools, all of the former pat- 
terns, except two of the chairs, which are of buffalo horn, most 
delicately formed, and more to my taste than the others, not 
designed for fat folks or romps." Then, in one of his first letters 
from London to Mr. Thompson, he said : — 

Remember, too, to inquire for, aild to secure my ivory cot. Mrs. Hast- 
ings desires me to inform you that the Begum's ivory chairs are of very 
great value, not of little, as you seem to estimate them. She requests that 
you will present her respects to the Begum (and mine, pray), and desire 
that she will not order any velvet, or other worked seat to the chairs, as they 
will make the whole seizable by the Custom House officers ; she also begs 
that they may be sent by a ship that will swim. 

Two ivory chairs, quaintly carved and gilded, each with five 
legs, were presented by Hastings to Queen Charlotte, and were 


subsequently acquired by the Duke of Buckingham and Chan- 
dos for Stowe, where they were sold at the famous auction in 
August, 1848. Some of the other articles of solid ivory that 
once occupied places of honour at Daylesford have found their 
way back to India, and now adorn the palace of the Maharajah 
of Dharbunga. 

Hastings possessed numerous portraits of notable persons 
who sat to distinguished artists for him, including the Duke 
of Gloucester, the Duke of Bridgewater, the Marquis Towns- 
end, the Earl of Warwick, the Earl of Fife, the Earl of Coven- 
try, the Earl of Dorchester, Lord Thurlow, Sir Thomas Plumer, 


etc. He also owned good examples of Teniers, Matsys, Ruys- 
dael, Corregio, Rembrandt, and other old masters ; as well as 
numerous specimens of the skill of Hodges and Zoffani, which 
he had cordially encouraged when those two artists visited him 
at Government House, Calcutta. Several of Hodges' Indian 
landscapes are still preserved at Daylesford ; and among them 
the most notable are views of Calcutta from Fort William ; of 
Alipore, near Calcutta ; of Benares; of the Taj Mahal, at Agra ; 
of Gazapoor on the Ganges ; of Cuttera ; of Shekoabad ; of the 
Himalayas, etc. A picture by this Royal Academician, repre- 
senting a boat in a squall on the Ganges, which illustrates an 



incident in Mrs. Hastings' life, when she was hastening to Cal- 
cutta to attend her husband in an illness, was removed from 
Daylesford after Sir Charles Imhoff's death, and is now owned 
by Miss Winter ; as also is a life-size portrait of Mrs, Hastings, 
that was taken in Calcutta by Zoffani. In a letter dated 
London, 29th March, 1787, Hastings complained to his friend, 
Mr. Thompson, in Calcutta, that : " Not one of my pictures 
has been sent after me, none of my Tibbet pictures, not one but 
Mrs. Hastings', of Zoffani's, and that packed so negligently 
that it arrived almost spoiled." Mrs. Hastings did not think 
that this portrait did her justice, and she caused it to be hung in 
a remote part of Daylesford House. The figure is well painted ; 
but is more suggestive of a Siddons in a role in a tragedy, than 
of the lady whose beauty and amiability fascinated the "great 
Proconsul " for nearly half a century. 

Hastings was rich in prints, miniatures, enamels, etc., and 
his collection of Persian drawings was especially remarkable. 
His library was extensive, and included numerous folio and 
quarto volumes of high repute, as well as octavo and smaller 
books, periodical publications, magazines, reviews, Parliamentary 
blue-books, plays, romances (bound and unbound), atlases, and 
music. Many of the books were presentation copies ; others 
contained his autograph ; and the majority were handsomely 
bound in old calf, or morocco. Numerous works bearing on 
India and the East were interspersed with rare editions of the 
ancient classics, narratives of voyages, antiquarian researches, 
treatises on natural history, biographies, sermons, histories, 
geographies, poems, essays, debates, tracts, pamphlets, operas, 
sonatas, and glees. There were two copies of a book containing 
a summary of the debates in the House of Lords on the evi- 
dence in the trial of Hastings, with a proof portrait of Lord 
Thuplow, the Chancellor. This work was privately printed in 
1797) the expense, and under the superintendence of Hast- 
ings, to " vindicate," according to the preface, " his character 
from the malicious, vindictive, and foul aspersions so unjustly 
cast upon it by his enemies ; also to convince such as have not 
sufficient time to wade through all the details of a trial which 
lasted twenty years, of his innocence." He presented it to a 


few private friends. There were several other reports and 
memorials of his trial among his books. 

It has been stated that upwards of a thousand }'ears ago the 
dale's ford, or Da\'lesford, was given by Ethelbald, King of the 
Mercians, to Begia, " a servant of God," for the endowment of 
a monastery. This retreat for those who were weary of such 
pomps and vanities of this wicked world as were to be had in 
those simple days, was built near the ancient village of Adles- 
trop, and a small church occupied the most honoured part of 
the establishment. Little is known of the monks who lived in 
this remote locality. Doubtless, they performed certain cere- 
monies ; had their relaxations ; and did what they could to 
ameliorate the hard conditions of the lives of the peasants 
around them. Their bell tolled the knell of many a parting 
day, and the carrying of many a rude forefather of the hamlet to 
his long home near the church. It also tolled for themselves on 
their departure from this transitory life. Decades accumulated 
into centuries, and the monastery fell on the evil days of dis- 
establishment. Then, in all probability, the villagers helped 
themselves to such building materials as it offered to the first 
comer. But the church occupied ground consecrated to holy 
uses; and the villagers stayed their hands when they approached 
it on predator}- thoughts intent. There is a tradition in the 
neighbourhood that a good deal of the material employed in 
the erection of the first Daylesford ]\Ianor House was pilfered 
from the monastery, and it is also said that a curse perma- 
nently rested on the house on that account. But the little 
church escaped the effacement that overtook the buildings 
around and about it. The Saxons were followed by the Danes, 
who, in their turn, were supplanted b\' the Xormans. The Ro}'al 
Houses of Plantagenet, Lancaster, York, Tudor, Stuart, and 
Hanover succeeded severally to the throne, and the church 
continued to weather all d\-nastic and meteorological storms. 
Divine service was performed with small hindrance from genera- 
tion to generation. ?vlany of the quaintly expressed prayers 
that still form part of the liturgy of the Church of England 
were composed, and were in use in parish churches throughout 
the land before the Norman Conquest. They must, therefore, 


have been read a countless number of times in this building, 
first by Roman Catholic, and then by Protestant ministers ; and 
the beauty of their imagery, the poetry of their language, and 
their adaptability to the spiritual needs of all classes and ages, 
at all times, and in all places, may have often afforded comfort 
to, and strengthened hope in those good folk at Daylesford who 
reverently responded to them in the days of old. 

As a child. Warren Hastings may have been frequently driven 
over from Churchill to Daylesford on Sundays to attend service 
in his grandfather's church ; but, from the year 1740, when he 
was taken to London, until 1764, when he returned for the 
first time from India, he did not see Daylesford again. Most 
probably he visited the place during the four years that he then 
remained in England. He came home " for good and all " 
in 1785, and became Lord of the Manor, and patron of the 
living, in 1788. Twenty-eight years more passed, and then, at 
the age of rather more than eighty-three, he resolved to pull 
down the old church, which was in decay, and to re-erect it, as 
far as possible, with the same materials, supplemented by such 
new woodwork and masonry as might be needed. He informed 
the Rev. J. Owen, the Rector of Daylesford, of his intention, 
and the latter agreed to perform the Sunday services in the 
church of Oddington until the reconstruction was completed. 
The following entries in Hastings' diary show how the work 
proceeded, and the methodical interest that he took in it:— - 

Zth /illy, 1816; The workmen began to remove the pews (mine, of course, 
to remain so), desk, and pulpit, and to unslate the roof The woodwork 
deposited in the stable, gth : The rafters all removed, and lastly the belfry 
taken down. loM, and 12th: Demolition. Part cleared to the foun- 

dation, which was found to be free stone all round, and the walls 12 ft. 6 in. 
high, and 2 ft. 3 in. thick. The wall, composed of irregular stones, was laid 
in plain earth. The Gothic porch down. Bell 19 in. diameter at bottom, and 
15 in. deep in the inside. 13/^.- Laid four of the groin stones for the found- 
ation, the fifth to be re-laid, i^th: Bank removed. i6th : First courses 
well advanced. 20th : The church much impeded by yesterday's rain, but 
otherwise going on well, and the timber frame much advanced. 23r^.- The 
wall is above the window sills. The ladies went to see the church. 2'^tk : I 
wrote to countermand the Gothic, and directed Roman instead. At 12^ the 
walls were 7 and 7^ ft. 27/// .• The south-west window in the way of being 
done to-day. 29//? .• At 2 I visited the church. Lead laid over the arch. 


3ist : The north-west and north-east windows finished. \st August : The 
masons employed in raising the scaffolding, ^t/i: The principal parts of the 
belfr}' brought home. The projection of the north-west wall finished. 

Jt/i: Letter from Mr. Rowe proposing a tablet of 29^ by 25^, which I 
answered thus : ' Sir, — I have attentively considered your drawing m every 
point of view, and particularly with relation to the situation in which the 
proposed tablet is to be placed. The tablet you recommend is, 1 think, 
considerably larger than will be necessary, nor do I quite like the propor- 
tions of it. I request, therefore, that the tablet which you are to prepare 
for me may be precisely 28 in. and one-third by 20 in. Within that space 
I am persuaded that you will be able to engrave the whole of the inscription 
in capitals large and distinct enough for the situation which is to receive it. 
I particularly request that all the words and the lines maybe kept distinct 
from each other, and I approve the method you have taken to separate and 



mark the Scriptural quotation from the rest of the inscription. You will be 
pleased, according to your own suggestion, to provide that the tablet shall 
stand half-an-inch froni the wall, and have two hitch blocks for its support. 
I am, etc' 

loth August : The principal rafters, and many of the smaller, and the wall 
tablets are fixed, and the water tablets and the pediment finished. 13///.- 
The base stone of the belfry well laid and bedded, ijth: The arch of the 
tower in three pieces, and the bell placed. 19///.- The turret finished. The re- 
maining rafters laid, and the chancel partly demolished, begun to-day. 24///.- 
Half the slating done, and 3 ft. of walling to the chancel. 26th : The slating 
of one side finished. 4/// September : The two front windows up and 
covered ; the arches waiting for the others ; the floor about half laid ; the 
cornice arranged on the ground. 7/// .• At eleven the opposite walls were 


completed, and the end wall far advanced ; the flooring laid. 8/// : The tab- 
let arrived, lofh : All timbers and masonry of the chancel finished, and 
slating two courses done, i itk : The slating of the south-east side of the 
chancel completed, i/^fk : The ridge laid, and the roof finished ; the rub- 
bish removed, and the floors swept, lyd : Plastering finished ; labourers 
unemployed. 2)^st : The tablet put up and tixed, and well done. i^tJi No- 
vember: Eight stained windows arrived. i^tJi : The painted window fixed. 
2ytk; Pews complete. i<:)th : Gibbs brought the tablet of E.H. and began 
the excavation of the gravestone ; ordered to be inserted above in the wall 
at the height of 6 ft. I gave directions to Gibbs to erect a gravestone in 
the churchyard, with this local inscription : ' The Rev. Penyston Hastings, 
B.A., Rector of this church, was buried here the ist of October, 1752.' 

Zth Deceuiber : This day, just five months from the demolition of the church, 
Divine service was performed by the Rev. J. Owen, curate, with a prayer 
and sermon for the occasion, most appropriate and impressive. A full con- 
gregation. No sensible damp or offensive smell. Mrs. Hastings prevented 
from going by the remains of a very severe indisposition. Sir Charles and 
Lady Imhoff and all our servants, with two unavoidable exceptions, present. 
Of these none have on this day (Monday) suffered any symptoms of indis- 
position from the recency of the masonry. Su?iday^ \^th : We all went to 
church. I'jth: My eighty-fourth birthday. ^^tJi January : Gibbs fixed the 
stone over my grandfather's grave. 

The tablet referred to bears the following inscription : — 

This Church derives its foundation from a grant of Ethelbald, King of 
the Mercians, who reigned between the years of our Lord 716 and 757. 
Sanctified by the prayers, rites, and oblations of its successive parochial 
members through a period exceeding" 1,000 years, it was rebuilt with such of 
the same material as constituted its primitive structure, and had escaped the 
mouldering hand of Time, with its identity unchanged ; and the uniformity 
of its Saxon architecture, which had suffered some encroachment upon it 
from the license of incidental reparations, was restored in the year of our 
Lord 1 8 16. 

" For a thousand years in Thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past, 
and a watch in the night," Psl. XC. 4. 



There was a vein of romance in Warren Hastings which found 
expression, not only in his love letters to his wife, but also in 
his poetical effusions. He was always fond of Latin and Eng-- 
lish poetry, and though, in the opinion of some persons who 
never made a rhyme, he demeaned himself by straying from 
the region of prose where he excelled, it may be conceded by 
less austere critics that, moderate though their literary merit 
may be, his poems show a depth of feeling, a love of nature, 
and a sense of humour that do him honour. In the intervals 
of official business in India he sometimes sought distraction for 
his thoughts by poetical composition ; and, long after his return 
home he copied some of his poems, in his own neat handwriting, 
into a volume, bound in crimson morocco and gold, that he 
presented to his wife, and which is now treasured by her grand- 
niece, ]\Iiss \\'inter. The collection opens with the following 
sonnet b\- way of dedication : — 

This Book replete with many a varied lay, 

Which stream, though diverse, from one common source, 
To thee, my Marian, seeks its destin'd course ; 

Thy right ; which I in grateful tribute pay. 

For 'twas from thee alone its glowing ray 
My genius drew, that with resistless force 
Impeird me first to sing ; else mute, or hoarse, 

Nor daring in the Muses' walks to stray : 

There, frequent as the Summers insects, rove, 

"Mid the gay scenes where Youth and Beauty shine ; 

Those who the sweets of transient Passion prove : 
But rare, whose path is one unvaried line 

Of wedded courtship, and domestic love ; 
For rare the merit of a heart like thine. 

Ye, who the common sutTrings feel 
Of love, yet wish your pains to heal, 




To distant plains and objects rove ; 

For absence is the cure of love. 

But why should I, ill judging, roam 

With risk of such a change at home ? 

Nor Time, nor Space, though both combine, 

Can cure a heart of love like mine. 

Wilt thou, my Marian, when we meet. 
With equal joy thy lover greet ? 
Wilt thou his transports share, and prove 
That absence is no cure for love ? 

The book contains a copy of his ode entitled " Rooroo and 
Promodbora — a Hindoo Tale, borrowed from Mr. Wilkins's 
Translation of the Maha-bhaurut, and sent from Patna to 
England in the year 1784." He tells the tale, and proceeds 
to apply the moral : — 

And now, my Marian, from its shackles free, 
My wearied fancy turns for ease to thee ; 
To thee, my compass through life's varied stream, 
My constant object, and unfailing theme. 
Torn from the bosom of my soul's repose, 
And self-devoted to surrounding woes. 
Oft o'er my solitary thoughts I brood — 
(For passing crowds to me are solitude) — 
Catch thy lov'd image, on thy beauties dwell, 
Improv'd by graces which no tongue can tell, 
The look, which I have seen, by love endear'd, 
The voice to love attun'd, which I have heard. 
Or rapt in thoughts of higher worth, adore 
Thy virtues, drawn by mem'ry's faithful store ; 
Or court, as now obsequious at her shrine. 
The Muse, unkind on ev'ry theme but thine. 
Nor foreign deem from such a frame of mind 
This tale, to meet thy gracious ear design'd. 
To me, and to my state, alike belong 
The subject, and the moral, of my song. 

'Tis true, no serpent of envenom'd breath 
Hath stung my love, ere yet a bride, to death ; 
And, O ! may Heav'n for many years to come, 
Preserve her life from Nature's final doom ! 
Yet is she lost to me, in substance dead, 
W^ith half the travers'd globe between us spread : 
Dreadful transition ! in one moment's cost 
My soul's whole wealth I saw, and held, and lost. 


Then Fate and Silence clos'd life's blissful scene, 
Its being past, as it had never been. 
The sad remembrance only now remains, 
And by contrasting aggravates my pains. 
Hope still attendant and delusive stands. 
And points, but coldly points, to distant lands ; 
Gilds their faint summits with her flatt'ring ray ; 
But deserts, rocks, and seas obstruct the way ; 
And age, and sickness, and the clouds that teem 
With unknown thunders, through the prospect gleam. 

Ah me ! no Gods, nor Angels now descend, 

The sons of men in pity to befriend 1 

My sufferings else might some kind Spirit move 

To give me back on terms the wife I love : 

And more than half my life would I resign. 

For health, her purchase, and herself, for mine. 

Borne by the Pow'rs of Air, or she should rise, 

Or I rejoin her through the distant skies. 

No more my thoughts in solitude should mourn 

My sweet companion from my presence torn ; 

Nor rigid duty force me to remain. 

And see her sails diminish on the main. 

To her my destin'd hours, though few, I'd give, 

And while I liv'd, a life of bliss I'd live. 

While Hastings was at sea, on board the Barrington, on his 
way home, he addressed the following imitation of Horace, 
Book n., ode xvi., Otuir,i Divos, etc., to John Shore, afterwards 
Lord Teignmouth, who eventually succeeded him as Governor- 
General. He made an exceedingly neat copy of it in his diary ; 
and, many years afterwards, transcribed it into the presentation 
volume above referred to : — 

For Ease the harass'd seaman prays. 
When equinoctial tempests raise 

The Cape's surrounding wave ; 
When hanging o'er the reef he hears 
The cracking mast, and sees, or fears. 

Beneath, his wat'ry grave. 

For Ease the starv'd Mahratta spoils, 
And hardier Sic erratic toils. 

And both their Ease forego : 
For Ease, which neither gold can buy, 
Nor robes, nor gems, which oft belie 

The cover'd heart, bestow. 



For neither wealth, nor titles join'd 
Can heal the foul, or sufif'ring mind, 

Lo ! where their owner lies ! 
Perch'd on his couch Distemper breathes, 
And Care, like smoke, in turbid wreaths 

Round the gay ceiling flies. 

He who enjoys, nor covets more 
The lands his father own'd before 

Is of true bliss possess'd ; 
Let but his mind unfetter'd tread 
Far as the paths of knowledge lead. 

And wise as well as blest. 

No fears his peace of mind annoy, 
Lest printed lies his fame destroy 

Which laboured years have won ; 
Nor pack'd Committees break his rest. 
Nor Av'rice sends him forth in quest 

Of climes beneath the sun. 

Short is our span ; then why engage 

In schemes for which Man's transient age 

Was ne'er by Fate design'd ; 
Why slight the gifts of Nature's hand 1 
What wand'rer from his native land 

E'er left himself behind ? 

The restless thought and wayward will 
And discontent attend him still 

Nor quit him while he lives : 
At sea Care follows on the wind, 
At land it mounts the pad behind, 

Or with the post-boy drives. 

He who would happy live to-day 
Should laugh the present ills away, 

Nor think of woes to come : 
For come they will, or soon or late. 
Since mix'd at best is Man's estate. 

By Heav'n's eternal doom. 

To ripen'd age Clive liv'd renown'd, 
With lacs enrich'd, with honours crown'd 

His valour's well-earn'd meed. 
Too long, alas ! he liv'd, to hate 
His envied lot, and died too late 

From life's oppression freed. 


An early death was Elliot's doom, 
1 saw his op'ning virtues bloom, 

And manly sense unfold 
Too soon to fade ! I bade the stone 
Record his name 'mid hordes unknown 

Unknowing what it told. 

To thee, perhaps, the Fates may give 
(I hope they may) in wealth to live, 

Flocks, herds, and fruitful fields ; 
The vacant hours with mirth to shine, 
With these the Muse, already thine, 

Her present bounties yields. 

For me, O Shore, I only claim, 
To merit, not to seek for fame, 

The good and just to please ; 
A state above the fear of want, 
Domestic love, Heav'n's choicest grant, 

Health, leisure, peace, and ease. 

His transcript of these lines in the presentation volume is fol- 
lowed by a copy, also in his handwriting, of what Hastings 
calls a " beautiful and harmonious poem," by Mrs. Burrell. These 
are the introductory verses : — 

No wonder that the skilful pen 
Of one amongst the best of men 

His noble soul displays I 
He in whose bosom Virtue dwells, 
Can best describe the thoughts he feels, 

When Virtue claims his praise. 

Hastings, to thee applause is due, 
W^hose anxious care, whose utmost view. 

Was still the public good. 
Wealth, Power, and all their tempting train 
Strove to engage thy mind in vain. 

Thy mind with worth indued. 

No thorns can from thy pillon- spring. 
Nor Conscience feel a poignant sting 

From retrospective scenes. 
Thy Mem'ry, when she backward treads, 
From thy disinterested deeds 

A secret pleasure gleans. 



Thou ne'er hast with tyrannic hand 
Spread desolation through the land, 

Nor taught the poor to weep. 
Thy breast no keen remorse can know, 
Nor pangs that from dishonour flow. 

Nor care that murders sleep. 

To bless has been thy glorious aim, 
The worthy, not the great, could claim 

A patronage from thee. 
No ostentatious love of pow'r 
Has ever gain'd dominion o'er 

A mind from error free. 

Those who amass unbounded store 
May in their prosp'rous state be poor 

In virtue and in fame ; 
But thou, of higher wealth possest. 
Hast brought this treasure from the East : 

An uncorrupted name. 

Hastings addressed an ode of eighteen stanzas to Mrs. Burrell, 
in reply to the foregoing, and prefaced his transcript by saying, 
that : " As there are some passages in this composition which 
m.ay seem to allude to a series of events which were neither 
known nor suspected by the author at the time in which it was 
written, it may, therefore, be proper to premise that it was written 
and finished some time within the month of January, 1786. On 
the 17th of the following month the charge of impeachment 
against him was opened in the House of Commons." The first 
four verses are as follows : — 

Sweet is the sound of praise ; as sweet 
As the seraphic airs that greet 

The dying martyr's ear ; 
If seated in the conscious breast 
Truth strike accordant, and attest 

The worth applauded there. 

Be praise to latest ages heard, 
Be wealth and honors the reward 

Of deeds of virtue done ; 
That feebler minds the blazon'd name 
May see, and emulate its fame, 

So profitably won. 



For ruin shall that Land await, 
Whose Genius, heedless of its fate, 

Like Fortune on her throne, 
Its trusted gifts at random throws, 
Or partial to its trait'rous foes. 

Is kind to them alone. 

But not for interests like these 
The moral man shall aim to please 

The world's uncertain will ; 
And these denied, the spark divine, 
That lights the frame within, shall shine 

With equal lustre still. 

The remainder of the poem is devoted to allusions to his trial, 
and to a correct forecast of the vindication of his conduct by 

In October, 1806, the octogenarian Earl of Coventry sent 
Hastings a copy of the following verses, of which he was the 
author : — 


Led by curiosity and fame, 

A stranger to this town I came. 

To see the lions and St. Paul's, 

The parties, masquerades, and balls, 

Banquets so costly and so fine, 

That some have thought, without a mine 

The charges could not be defrayed. 

But all is for the good of trade. 

And so, indeed, I grant it might 

If bills were payable at sight. 

IVIore wondrous things than these I saw, 

A Chancellor at odds with law ; 

A mitre, too, without decision, 

^Twixt Papal and reformed religion. 

I saw a man who made it clear 

Without horse, foot, or volunteer, 

And all such usual reliance 

England might bid to France defiance. 

I saw a youth just come from school, 

Teaching arithmetic by rule. 

He knew that two and two make four, 

That taking ten from just five score, 



The sum of ninety would remain, 
With which you might begin again. 

I saw a man for parts renown'd, 

On whom Dame Fortune lately frown'd, 

Though now she plenteous fare affords, 

Reduc'd to dine on his own words : 

A brewer, too, to forego "entire," 

To vent his patriotic ire. 

He proved that fraud and peculation 

Would be the ruin of the nation. 

"Grains" of allowance for his trade 

I must suppose he would have made. 

Alas, how prone is man to spy 

The mote that's in another's eye ! 

But above all my chief surprise is 

(A thing unknown at our Assizes), 

That when a man has been acquitted. 

It should to others be permitted 

To persevere in ill report, 

And doubt the justice of the Court. 

Hastings appreciated the delicate allusion to himself in the 
last six lines ; and, in acknowledging the Earl's courtesy, he 
said that, being impressed by the spirit and ease of the model 
before" him, he had presumed to make the following addition to 
the poem : — 

I saw a greater wonder still 

('Twas at a place they call Spring Hill), 

A man whom time, affliction, pain, 

Have join'd their powers to bend, in vain ; 

To whom reflective conscience shows 

A life improving to its close ; 

Like summer's suns, in day's decline. 

That with more vivid colours shine : 

With talents grac'd, with wisdom more, 

And wit that blooms at eighty-four. 

The Earl died three years afterwards, aged eighty-seven. 

In March, 1810, Hastings availed himself of ''the frank of a 
basket to Mrs. Motte," to send his friend, Halhed, the following 
lines, which were, he explained, " composed of shreds and 
patches between Portman Square and Daylesford " : — 


From the days of Job Cliarnock, scarce known on record, 
To the triumphs of Plassey's redoubtable Lord, 
The Company trafifick'd unheeded : 

WARREN HASTINGS {after Masqiierier). 

She sent her ships forth, the wide ocean to roam, 
With rich cargoes well freighted, and brought richer home 
And in all she adventur'd succeeded. 


By oppression provok'd, she to arms had recourse, 
And soon made her oppressors submit to her force ; 

From defensive proceeded offender : 
And her courage attemper'd with wisdom conspir'd 
To aggrandize her pow'r, till at length she acquir'd 

Of an empire entire the surrender. 

Now the sages in schools of diplomacy bred, 
Civil doctors, divines, and state-moralists said— 

(And the senate confirm'd their opinion ; ) 
That for her, a mere trader (for what was she more ?), 
Or her factors and clerks, from her counting-house door, 

To pretend to the rights of dominion ; 

That to give up the pen in exchange for the gun ; 
To hold rule over nations — no matter how won 

To make treaties ; assume legislature ; 
Nay worse, of finance to distribute the drains. 
To elicit their currents, and pocket the grains ; 

Was to gospel repugnant and nature. 

So they stripped off her robe ; but the loss to atone, 
His Majesty gave her a cloak of his own ; 

Lent her armies and fleets for protectors ; 
To diminish her cares, and to lighten their weight. 
For her guardians appointed the Lords of the State, 

And a Board to direct her Directors. 

Thus equipp'd, and embrac'd by the beams of the throne, 
As once Semele, wrapp'd in Jove's attributes, shone. 

Now as meek and resigned as a martyr, 
With the guilt of imputed offences defil'd. 
By rapacity pilfer'd, by malice revil'd. 

She gave up the ghost, and her charter. 

Though ignoble her birth, yet in death she may boast. 
That her orb in the colors of glory was lost. 

Like the sun, when he sets in Orion ; 
This reflection of comfort at least to produce — 
That her greatness arose from the quill of a goose. 

And was crush'd by the paw of a lion. 

The following lines^ were entered by Hastings into his diary 
shortly before the close of his life : — 

1 Quoted by Dr. J. Grant in an article, entitled " Warren Hastings in 
Slippers," which appeared in the Calcutta Review of March, 1856. 




As the lone traveller, from Alpine skies 

Looks down upon the storm he cannot feel ; 

Through the spread clouds that far beneath him rise, 

Sees the dim flash, and hears the tardy peal, 

Yet warn'd by time which not unheeded flies, 

Quits his calm sunshine, and illusive weal. 

Braves (for he must) the tempest ere it dies, 

While quickened steps his latent fears reveal : 

So I, with mind of self-dependence vain, 

My lot of life in ease and comfort laid, 

And smiles of love with smiles of love repaid 

Look down with pity mingled with disdain 

On care-bound mortals ; till of want afraid, 

I stoop, like them, to care, and court the chain. 

Hastings was exceedingly hospitable at Daylesford, and, as a 
host, he preached temperance by his own life-long practice of 
the virtue. Like Herodotus, as described by Faber, he was, in 
his retirenaent, a " mild old man." He was neighbourly both to 
his equals, and to the poor at his gates. He was habitually 
cheerful, and he was the cause of cheerfulness in all around him. 
He was a lively and well-informed conversationalist with all 
ranks and all ages. His ample library, his taste for Oriental 
literature, and his love of poetry, served to shield him from 
enniti during inclement weather. He was an horticulturist and 
an acclimatisor ; and his flower, fruit, and vegetable gardens, his 
stables, his flocks, his herds, his menagerie, his farm, and his 
fish-ponds afforded his enquiring and intelligent mind constant 
delight. He loved trees, and, on the 30th November, i8ro, 
when he was in his seventy-eighth year, he wrote an elegy on 
some beeches in his park, which were blown down by a storm. 
Having described the tempest and its effects, he says in the 
poem which is in his handwriting before me : — 

Pride of my lands I long shall remembrance dwell 
On your lost worth. Pride of my lands, farewell I 
I lov'd to see your stately columns rise, 
And lift your plumy tenants to the skies ; 
To hear the blackbird's short but mellow lay. 
And the sweet thrush that hymns the closing day : 
And all the happy warblers of the grove 
Join in one chorus of accordant love. 



Pleas'd I belield my flock at noontide laid 

Beneath your cool and hospitable shade ; 

Nor less the opposing screen, that shevv'd, withdrawn, 

The bursting- prospect of the varied lawn. 

The joy I daily felt, by habit prov'd 

A purer int'rest, and its source I lov'd ; 

And you, perhaps, as love the growth it made 

Of love, the gen'rous sentiment repaid. 

He then touches upon the uses to which the wood of these 
lamented trees would be appHed, in the making of fences, 
frames, beds, and cabinets ; and concludes with reflections on 
the political storm that was (under Napoleon) threatening Eng- 
land when he wrote. 

He took some interest in science ; and in 1801 he was elected 
a Fellow of the Royal Society. It is stated in the Journal 
Book of the Society that, on the 19th of March, a " certificate was 
read recommending for election Warren Hastings of Berkeley 
Square, late Governor-General of India, as a gentleman of great 
and extensive knowledge in various branches of science, and 
likely to become an useful and valuable member." It was signed 
by Lord Morton, Messrs. R. J. Sullivan, P. Russell, and J. Bruce, 
and it was " ordered to be hung up in the public meeting room." 
The election took place on the 25th June, and, on the 5th 
November (at which date Sir Joseph Banks was President of the 
Society), " Warren Hastings, Esq., elected at the last meeting, 
attended; he paid his admission fee, compounded for annual con- 
tributions, signed the Obligation in the Charter Book, and was 
admitted a Fellow of the Society." There is no record of his 
having made any communication to the Society. 

He left among his papers, which are now in the British 
Museum, "A comparative account of the cost and charges of 
the Flail and Thrashing Machine"; a pen-and-ink sketch, and 
minute measurements of a " picota," by which rude apparatus 
water is raised in India from a well, or pond, by a lever ; a 
memorandum on the effect attributed to the barberry bush of 
debilitating ears of corn, and conducing to blight ; a paper 
showing that the leaves of trees and plants are essential to their 
strength, to the growth of buds, and the maturing of fruit ; a 
project for constructing and regulating a stove for tropical fruits, 


accompanied by a neatly executed geometrical drawing ; some 
directions for the cultivation of chillies and beringauls ; instruc- 
tions for dibbling ; a diary of the readings of the thermometer, 
and a record of the weather at Daylesford ; recipes for dressing 
a curry and boiling rice ; an estimate,^ in tabular form, of the 
produce of wheat, barley, and oats in the parish of Daylesford, 
with remarks; etc. 

Hastings had no taste for sport in any form. He discharged 
a pistol two or three times before his memorable duel with 
Francis, who admitted that he had never had even this very 
slight acquaintance with fire-arms ; but he never dreamt of 
finding pleasure by taking the life of either large or small game 
when he was in India ; and he did not preserve in order to 
shoot game at Daylesford. Nor did he care for horse-racing or 
gambling. But on one occasion he was induced to take part in 
a lottery. This was in March, 1809, when " Mr. Towney bought 
a lottery ticket in partnership with me for twenty guineas, No. 
1808. I paid him half by draft, and we gave the ticket in 
custody to Lady Imhoff, superscribed ' The property of VV. H. 
and C. P. Esqres.,' in his handwriting." The lottery referred 

^ It appears from this paper that, on the ist October, 1801, the inhabitants 
of the parish of Daylesford were 98 in number, and included" Mr. and Mrs. 
Hastings and their domestics," 21 ; " their other servants and their famiHes 
living out of the house," 8 ; Mrs. Bowles and her family, 7 ; " Mrs. Hart 
and her household," 2 ; Mrs. Dadge and her family, 3 ; and other inhabi- 
tants, 57. The population, he said, " had progressively risen from fifty-one, 
the number of which it consisted in 1788, when my household was first 
added to it, to sixty-eight, the number of which it consisted in the autumn of 
last year exclusive of that addition. . . . The quantity of wheat consumed 
in my family from the 31st October, 1799, to the ist of November, 1800, was 
150 Winchester bushels." He had 49 acres under wheat in 1801, which 
produced 109 quarters ; 26 acres under barley, which produced 56 quarters ; 
and 16 acres under oats, which produced 50 quarters. The wheat crop 
showed a deficiency as compared with the yield in 1800. " I have reverted,' 
he remarked, " to the notice of the last year's produce, to show with what 
ease a case of deficiency, in this instance as great perhaps as any that is 
likely to occur in the course of some years to come, may be remedied by the 
accommodation of the appetite, not only to such a diet as will satisfy nature, 
but to such as even the fastidiousness of unconstrained luxury may relish." 
This end could be attained, in his opinion, by the employment of equal 
quantities of wheat and barley in the making of bread. 


to was a State one, and the chief prize was a large sum of 
money. As no further mention of the ticket was made by 
Hastings in his diary, it must be concluded that he and his 
partner drew a blank. 

From the restless standpoint of the concluding decade of the 
nineteenth century it may seem strange that Warren Hastings, 
after he settled down at Daylesford, rarely sought amusement, 
with change of air, scene, and society, except in the metro- 
polis, to which he bent his steps twice or thrice a year. The 
means of communication a century ago left much to be desired ; 
yet, if there were no railways to bring the ends of the land 
together, there were stage-coaches that plied regularly between 
the large towns, and the public roads were available for eques- 
trians, and for private conveyances. But Hastings seldom 
diverged from the direct route to and from London ; and though 
he became a valetudinarian in his latter years — as is so fre- 
quently the case with retired Anglo-Indians, when they realize 
the fact that they are shelved, and superfluous in their native 
land — he was little disposed to travel at home, much less 
abroad, in search of health or recreation. He paid flying visits 
to Cheltenham, Oxford, and a few other places, and he spent, 
as will be seen, a couple of days at Brighton ; but it was 
habitual with him to be content with ringing the changes on 
a corner of Worcestershire and the west end of London. In 
respect to making himself acquainted, by personal and compara- 
tive observation, with the physical features, the historic edifices, 
the local populations, the manners and customs of England, 
he was, it must be confessed, unenterprising. He was not, 
perhaps, more so than the average country gentleman of his 
time, who usually cherished an aversion to the trouble and 
expense of straying beyond the beaten path to his county 
town ; but Hastings had been far afield in his youth and prime, 
and he was no average man of the stay-at-home type. Cir- 
cumstances compelled him, irrespective of personal inclination, 
to make many and long journeys in Northern India, and he 
might thus have acquired a taste for travelling for its own sake 
that may have survived his return to Europe, and assisted to 
reconcile him to the uncongenial inactivity of a pensioner's lot. 



Such, however, was not the case. He was a good, but not an 
ardent horseman ; his personal wants were few ; his physical 
activity was remarkable ; his manners were genial ; he was fond 
of, and was appreciated by good society ; and he was not tied 
down to any spot by the inexorable demands of sport. Yet he 
never visited Wales or Ireland ; he did not penetrate into Scot- 
land beyond Edinburgh ; he saw little of the Midlands ; and 
he was a stranger to counties so accessible to Worcestershire as 
Devon and Cornwall. The quiet life at Daylesford, agreeably 
diversified as it was by the exercise of hospitality, and by 
occasional contact with men and women of light and leading in 
town, met his requirements, and was conducive to his longevity ; 
but his sympathies were narrowed by his disinclination to see 
the world beyond Adlestrop and St. James's. 

In the autumn of 1805 he visited the Isle of Thanet, accom- 
panied by Mrs. Hastings and Miss Bailing, a daughter of Lady 
Dalling. He left London on the 26th October, and drove with 
his own horses to Rochester ; proceeded thence with hired horses 
to Sittingbourne, where " we were all accommodated." The 
party arrived at an hotel at Margate the following afternoon, 
and '* slept at an adjacent house, the hotel being full. ' The next 
day Mrs. Hastings and Miss Dalling went to Ramsgate " in 
quest of a house." On the ist October ''we took possession of 
No. 38, Churchfield Place." On the 12th "we all went to the 
play, bespoke by Mrs. H." On the 14th they left Ramsgate 
about noon, " baited at Deal, and arrived in the evening at 
Dover. The York Hotel, where we stopped, was full, and the 
landlord insidiously conducted us to the London Hotel — the 
Ship, a good inn, having vacant accommodation." 

15///. We saw Dover Castle, and the famous clitf. Sir William and 
Captain Dalling and Mr. Sullivan ained with us. 

i6t/i. We proceeded to Canterbury, where we stopped by the pressing 
invitation of Captain Hughes at his house ; dined and slept there. The 
Marquis of Douglas dined with us. Captain Hughes accompanied Miss 
Dalling and me to the Cathedral. 

17///. We set out after 11, and, contrary to our intention of stopping at 
Rochester, we went on to town, reached Lady Dalling's unexpected at 10, 
having travelled five hours in the dark. 

Hastings and his wife spent New Year's Day, 1806, at 



Brighton. He stated in his journal that they left London about 
I p.m., and arrived at Brighton about 4. On the Marine Parade 
they " were stopped and graciously accosted by the Prince of 
Wales." They received an invitation to pass the evening at the 
Pavilion — the palace in an Oriental style of architecture and 
decoration that the Prince had erected for his marine residence. 
They went there at 9, and the Prince " sat with us an hour and 
a half, and invited us to dinner to-morrow." On the morrow 
"we dined at the Pavilion, the Prince leading Mrs. H. and Mrs. 
T. H." The next day Hastings wrote his name in the Prince's 
visiting book, and " at half-past 1 1 we departed from Mrs. 
Barton's. We slept at Ryegate." The following morning they 
started early, and " reached Park Street, No. 112, a little past i." 

Hastings made a tour to Edinburgh and the English lakes 
in the same year, and he jotted down his experiences in his 
diary : — 

August Afth. We left Daylesford at 840 a.m. for Scotland, and this day 
reached Lichfield, where we slept at the George, good. Miles 62. 

5//?. Derby. King's Head, good. Here our postillion drove against 
Colonel I.'s chaise, and broke the left wheel. We deviated to Kiddles ton 
Hall, and sav/ Kiddleston House. 27 miles. 

6//^. Sheffield. Tontina, very good. 86 miles. 

']th. Northallerton. Golden Lion, good. 75^ miles. 

^th. Newcastle, very good, 48^ miles. 

9///. Proceeded at 10, and continued till 8.50 p.m., the last two hours 
through a heavy storm of rain, with some hail, and frequent flashes of 
lightning. Slept at Berwick. 63^ miles. 

\otli. St. Germain's, where we arrived after 3. 44^ miles. Here we found 
Mr. and Mrs. Anderson, their eldest son and daughter, Mrs. Sands and her 
son, John Anderson and his son, who departed in the evening. 

II///. Mr. Anderson and Charles (Imhoff) went to Edinljurgh to see the 
examination of Warren Hastings Anderson, my godson, whom they brought 
with them to dinner. 

There is no entry for the six following days, which were 
probably spent in Edinburgh. The diary then proceeds : — 

17///. We went to church. Dr. Hamilton. 
19///. Charles and Mrs. Imhoff left. 

12nd. Mr. Anderson and I went together to a dinner made for us at 
Oman's Hotel, by the gentlemen of the Edinburgh India Club, to which 
Lord Morton and Charles were also invited. We left them at half-past 8, 
and returned to St. Germain's. 


A friend in Edinburgh has hunted up for me the following 
paragraph, which appeared in the Edinburgh Evening Coiirant^ 
and also in the Edinburgh Advertiser of the 23rd August, 

The Edinburgh East India Club and a number of gentlemen from India 
gave an elegant entertainment to Warren Hastings, Esq., late Governor- 
General of India, on Friday last, at Oman's tavern. The occasion was 
particularly gratifying to the feelings of a very numerous meeting, many of 
whom, from a long residence in India, had the best opportunity of knowing 
this distinguished character, and appreciating the services he had rendered 
his country during his government of British India. After the health ot 
Mr. Hastings and many loyal and patriotic toasts, the following sentiment 
from the President was drunk with universal applause : " Prosperity to our 
settlements in India, and may the virtue and talents which preserved them 
be ever remembered with gratitude."' The evening concluded with that 
spirit of conviviality which has ever distinguished this respectable society. 

The Club, which was founded in 1797, ceased to exist many 
years ago. 

Hastings made these further entries in his diary : — 

i^th. We all went to Tyningham ; going early saw much of the garden 
and plantations. 

27M. We returned late in the morning to St. Germain's. Colonel and 
Mrs. I. left us to make the tour of the lower Highlands. 

2%th. We dined at Mr. Liston's, and returned to McGregor's hotel at 

29///. Mr. Anderson and I visited Mrs. Rowland and Mrs. Kerr ; we 
afterwards met at dinner at Mr. Sands's in Edinburgh. 

30/^. We visited Reg'n Office, (Sic, with Mr. Wachop, and all dined at 
Mr. Samuel Anderson's. 

3 1 J-/. We went to the Presbyterian church, but heard nothing. 

Sept. \st. Mr. Anderson, Mrs. H. and I dined at Dalmahoy with Lord 
and Lady Morton. 

Did. We walked round the Park ; returned to Edinburgh ; visited Mr. 
Wachop ; proceeded to St. Germain's, where we arrived at 5. 

"jth. Lord Morton arrived, and staid. Mr. and Mrs. S. Anderson and 
Mr. H. 

S/Zz. All departed about noon, with Miss Swinton. 

\oth. We set out (Mr. and Mrs. Anderson and ourselves, 8) for Wilton 
Lodge, at 10 a.m. We arrived at Wilton at i. While we were here we 
visited the castle of Branxholme. Wilton Lodge is the most beautiful place 
we have seen. The Vale of l^eviot well cultivated. Very recent improve- 
ments. Farmhouses all new ; hedges none of ten years' growth. 

I'^th. We left Wilton Lodge. Messrs. Anderson, Mrs. Anderson, and 
Miss Anne accompanying us at 'j\ ; at Moss I^ark baited, 13 miles ; Long- 


holme, II miles. At three miles past Longholme we took leave of our 
friends. Longtown, 11. Carlisle, Bush Inn, 9. Total of this day 44 miles. 

Thus ended Hastings' first and last visit to Scotland. 

14//?. We all went to the Cathedral, and at 2 proceeded over a dreary 
country, without a tree, at 5.20 Penrith, the Crown, 18 miles. 
i^fk. Visited UUeswater, Aira force, and Patterdale. 

\6th. At 940 we left Penrith, and at 1.25 arrived at Keswick, 18 miles, 
Royal Oak, We took boat, and saw Lodore. 

lyfh. About 9 we started, the ladies in a chaise, Charles, I, Hutton, and 
Thomas riding, on the Lorton road. The ladies rode about three miles to 
Scalo Hill, and one more on the way to the boat, which carried us to the 
head of the lake of Cummoc, stopping first at the inn of Scalo Hill. We 
landed and walked to Buttermere, i mile. We returned by the vale of 
Newlands, the ladies having rode 13 miles, walked 2, and been rowed 4, 
total 19 miles ; carriage added 25, and scarce fatigued. 

18/i^. At near noon we started, the rain, which had fallen all night, 
having just ceased. Borrowdale, Bowdarstone, Rossthwaite ; crossed the 
Derwent, riding about 300 paces along the rapid stream, and ascended a 
steep hill to Watterlath, and home, about 16 miles. 

\()ih. Charles rode up Skiddaw. We went together to Vicktor's Island, 
and on our return I fell over some fir trees lying across the path. I called 
on Mr. Edmonstone, a surgeon, purposing to be bled, to which he objected. 
Mary, Mrs. I.'s maid, following Patrick and Nancy up Skiddaw, missed 
them, and did not return till dark. 

22Jtd. At II we departed. Ambleside, 15 ; Kendal, 14. 

Burton ; Lancaster ; Garstang ; Preston, — Black Bull, — good ; 43^ 


24///. Wigan ; Warrington ; Knutsford ; Congleton ; Newcastle ; 66| miles 
2^fh. Stone ; Wolseleybridge ; Lichfield ; Birmingham ; Hockley House ; 

Stratford, — Lion ; 70 miles. A beautiful day and pleasant roads. John rode 

a blind mare from Wolseleybridge, which fell with him. He was blooded 

at Lichfield, and not much hurt. 

26//«. We breakfasted, and proceeded and reached home about noon, 

having travelled altogether 900 miles. 

The defeat of the Emperor Napoleon early in 18 14, his ab- 
dication of the throne of France, and his exile to Elba restored 
peace to Europe, and Louis XVIII. thereupon emerged from 
his retreat at Hartvvell, near Stanmore, Middlesex, and was 
escorted thence, with much ceremony, by the Prince Regent to 
London. The Royal party made a triumphal entry into the 
metropolis, and the King was lodged at Grillon's Hotel, in 
Albemarle Street. On the .23rd April the Prince Regent pro- 
ceeded to Dover to receive the King, who on the following 


day embarked for France. On the 8th May the Emperor 
Alexander I. of Russia — he was not then known in Eno-land as 


the Czar — and King Frederick WilHam II. of Prussia, arrived 
at Dover from Boulogne, in the Impregnable, accompanied by 
the Prince Royal of Prussia (afterwards King Frederick William 
III.); Prince William (afterwards the Emperor William I.); 
other Princes ; Marshal Blucher, etc. The Prince Regent had 
caused rooms to be prepared for the Emperor in St. James's 
Palace ; but his Majesty drove up unexpectedly from Dover to 
the Pulteney Hotel in Albemarle Street, where his sister, the 
Duchess of Oldenburg, had been staying for five weeks, and 
remained there. The King of Prussia arrived in London on the 
following day, and went to Clarence House, St. James's Park. 
The Prince of Orange, the Prince of Oldenburg, and the Prince 
of Mecklenburg also arrived. 

On the 1 2th June, Hastings left London with Mr. E. 
B. Impey for Oxford, and " baited at Tettervvorth." On 
the following morning, after breakfast, they continued their 
journey to Oxford, and Hastings was welcomed there by Mr. 
Theophilus Leigh Cooke, of Magdalen College, whose guest he 
was during his stay at the University City. There was an 
excited demand for horses and conveyances, and Hastings took 
the precaution to " engage the same horses and postillions for 
the time of my stay " as had brought him from Tetterworth. 
In the afternoon he attended the levee — or " lever " as he wrote 
it in his diary in the old-fashioned way — of Lord Grenville, the 
Chancellor of the University. " We dined (Mr. C. and I) at his 
brother George's of Corpus." On the 14th the Prince Regent 
and his Imperial and Ro}'al visitors drove from London to 
Oxford, where degrees were to be conferred on the most dis- 
tinguished of the nation's guests. Hastings noted in his 
journal : — 

14///. A procession of all the gownsmen, and of the Mayor and Alder- 
men, met the Prince Regent at the bridge, and conducted him to the 
Divinity School. I joined them on the way. Then the Chancellor read the 
Address of the University to the Prince, who read his answer. I joined the 
procession about 10, and returned to the College about i. I dined by in- 
vitation, ratified by H.R.H. in Redcliffe Library. Present all the Royal 
Guests, the Duchess of Oldenburg, etc. The city illuminated. At the 


dinner Lord Grenville presided. I walked home about 12, Dr. Hughes, of 
Exeter, accompanying me. 

15M. At 9 I went to the Divinity School, where the Princes, the Duchess 
of Oldenburg, &c., were assembled. All proceeded to the theatre. I was 
assisted through the throng to the lowest bench, when a gentlemen insisted 
on resigning his place to me. The Prince Regent came in a Doctor's robe. 
The Emperor and King were elected by diploma, and robed. On departing 
I was greeted by the gownsmen. The Dean of Christ Church invited me 
to dinner in Christ Church Hall, to which afterwards I received a card of 
invitation "by the gracious permission of H.R.H. the Prince Regent," as 
yesterday. I came home between 12 and i ; dressed ; and past 2 went to the 
Prince's lever ; was introduced by Sir T. Tyrrwhit before it began, and 7nosi 
graciously received. Invited by the Bishop of Oxford into his apartments, 
after which to Dr. Barnes's, where I staid till when I went to the 
Deanery. The Prince, &c., assembled there, and proceeded to the Hall for 
dinner. At 9^ the Royal guests departed, the rest following. I walked 

He returned to Portugal Street, London, on the i6th, with 
Mr. E. B. Impey, and he was one of the guests at the banquet 
that was given by the Lord Mayor and Corporation of the City 
of London to the Prince Regent and the Allied Sovereigns. 
The Corporation realized the importance of the occasion. The 
Lord Mayor, William Domville (bearing the sword of state), the 
Sheriffs and twenty Aldermen (including Sir Richard Carr Glyn, 
Bart., Sir James Shaw, Bart., Sir Claudius Hunter, Bart., Sir 
Charles Flower, Bart, Sir William Lewis, Knt., and Sir John 
Eames, Knt.), all in their robes of office, mounted on chargers 
lent them by officers of the Royal Horse Guards, rode two 
and tvro, suitably escorted, through the crowded and decorated 
streets of the City to Temple Bar, where they alighted, and 
respectfully received the Prince Regent. They then remounted 
their horses, and preceded the Prince to the Guildhall, where, 
at 5 o'clock, they offered him a hearty welcome. He made 
a brief reply, and concluded by stating that, in honour of 
this auspicious occasion, and in conformity with usage, he 
had ordered Letters Patent to be prepared for granting the 
dignity of Baronet to the Lord Mayor. The civic functionaries 
then received the Imperial, Royal, and other guests as they 
reached the Guildhall. The banquet was announced at about 
7 o'clock. The company included the Prince Regent, the 
Emperor of Russia, the King of Prussia, all the English and 


Prussian Royal Princes, the Prince of Wurtemberg, the Prince 
of Bavaria, the Prince of Orange, the Duke and Duchess of 
Oldenburg, the Duke of Coburg, the Duke of Saxe Weimar, 
Prince Blucher, numerous British peers, and members of the 
House of Commons, Warren Hastings and others. Hastings 
recorded in his journal : — 

I went by invitation to the grand dinner at Guildhall. At 4, I entered 
the line of procession at St. James's. After some time the Prince Regent 
passed on the left, and a new procession followed of the foreign Princes and 
other privileged persons. I reached Guildhall not much after 6. The Prince 
Regent himself presented me to the Emperor, and to the King of Prussia, 
in terms of most flattering commendation, and as the most injured man, 
&c. He had made me some compensation, but not enough. This was pro- 
nounced aloud to the Emperor in English ; to the King in French, and 
short. He afterwards presented me to the Duchess of Oldenburg, who 
recognised me. I met with great attentions, and from many who were 
unknown to me. The whole scene was magnificent beyond example. The 
Prince, &c., departed at 11. I waited about an hour and a half more, and 
came home past 2, not worse, though my seat at dinner was in a draft of air. 
Lord Sidmouth promised a place for Mrs. Hastings to see it, if the Prince 
Regent should go to the Parliament in State, while the Sovereigns remain. 

On the following day, Sunday, Hastings said : " I wrote my 
name at Carlton House with difficulty in a book of the King of 
Prussia, and left my name for the same purpose in those of the 
Emperor and of the Duchess of Oldenburg." He did not 
attend the grand review in Hyde Park, on the 20th, for the 
purpose of proclaiming the treaty of peace with France, at 
which the Prince Regent and the Allied Sovereigns were pre- 
sent, nor did he witness the Naval Review at Portsmouth on the 
25th. The Emperor and King left London for Dov^er, e7t route 
to the Continent, on the 27th ; and, on the following day, the 
Duke of Gloucester, who had taken an active part in all the 
brilliant functions in their honour, called on Hastings, and 
probably gave him an animated account of what he had seen 
and heard during the memorable epoch. On the 7th July, at 
7 a.m., Hastings went with Sir John Sinclair to the Thanks- 
giving-for- Peace Service at St. Paul's Cathedral. The Prince 
Regent arrived at i \ \. " We returned after 4." 

A few days previously Sir John Malcolm — or Malcomb as 
Hastings wrote the name in his journal — who eventually 



became Governor of Bombay, called on Hastings to enquire 
" whether it would be convenient to me to receive a deputation 
from the Gentlemen of India proposing an invitation to the 
Duke of Wellington, and myself to preside at a dinner given 
him, and proposing Monday next at 12, to which I assented." 
The "Indian Committee" duly called, "and I accompanied 
them to the Duke of Wellington, when they invited him to a 
dinner, announcing me as their Chairman, and he fixed on 
Monday, the nth July, for the dinner." Hastings was far from 


well on that day, his " spasms having returned with violence 
and continuance " ; but " I went before 7 to the dinner given 
by the Gentlemen from India to the Duke of Wellington, of 
which I was nominated Chairman. I prefaced his health by an 
appropriate address." He copied his speech into his journal. 
He said : — 

My Lord Duke,— The gentlemen of this assembly, who formerly held 
occupations in the various departments of the East India Company's service 
in India, have solicited the honour of your Grace's presence on this day's 
festival, to congratulate your Grace on your happy return to the bosom of 
your country, and to testify in this manner their admiration of your good 
and eminent services. In offering this tribute they are animated by the 
same sense of gratitude which glows in every British heart ; but they claim 



to feel it, if not in a superior de;4ree, in a peculiar manner, from having been, 
some of them, the associates of your early warfare, many near witnesses of 
it, and all possessing a common interest in the train of victories by which 
you supported and extended the power of the British Empire in India, thus 
uniting at the same time a brother's glory and your own. They have seen 
the same spirit displayed in the plains of Berar as hath since shone on the 
heights of Vittoria ; but the course of your later achievements has been dis- 
tinguished by a much more elevated character, in which you have appeared 
as the delegated champion of the most sacred relations of human society. 

He then glanced at the defeat of Napoleon's " wanton and 
perfidious aggression," and declared that it was the Duke, " who, 
himself led by an unseen hand, conducted all the movements 
of this awful scheme of over-ruling justice." In conclusion he 
said, addressing the company : " This was the consummated 
work of our most noble guest, under the auspices of that Being, 
who, whatever means He may employ for the chastisement of 
offending nations, invariably makes choice of the best moral 
characters as His fittest instruments for the dispensation of His 
blessings and His mercies to mankind." 

He noted in his journal that the Pilot remarked that : — 
*' The Chairman's speech, from his feeble voice, could only be 
heard by those who were near the chair ; but it was received 
with much satisfaction, and the health was drunk with long, 
loud, and repeated shouts of applause." There were two other 
toasts which were received with all honours, viz., " Mr. Hastings 
and the Government of India," and " The Marquis of Wellesley, 
and thanks to him for his distinguished services in India." He 
" came home at one, after a very spare repast, not much heated 
or fatigued." 

On the 14th of July, Hastings and his wife went to the 
Queen's drawing-room, and both (Mrs. H. particularly) were 
received most graciously by the Queen and Princess Sophia of 
Gloucester. The Duchess of Wellington announced herself to 
me, referring to my presiding at the dinner on Monday\" The 
next day he "left his name" with Sir T. Picton, Lord Hill, 
and the Duchess of Wellington, and called on the Duke of 
Gloucester. The Prince's fete having been fixed for the 21st, 
Hastings and his wife agreed to stay till the day following in 
order to attend it. On the i6th he dined with the Court of 


Directors at the City of London Tavern, and he responded to 
the flattering toast of " Mr. Hastings and the Governnnent of 
India." He attended the Prince Regent's fete, on the 21st, 
with Mrs. Hastings, and merely noted in his diary : " We went 
at 10 to the Prince Regent's fete, and returned home at 6 in the 
morning." He was an octogenarian, and it is not surprising that 
on the 22nd, " he slept a great part of the day." 


On the 23rd he left London with Mrs. Hastings for a visit to 
his friend Mr. Henry Vansittart at Bisham Abbey, the pictur- 
esque old house near Clievden, on the Thames. 

On the 24th^ " we all went to church." 

On the 25th, "we took leave at 9, and arrived at home at 5|. 
A burning journey. Our house repaired, cleaned, and painted 
and the bath finished." 



Lord Thurlow said to Major Scott, shortly before Hastings 
left Calcutta, that " it would be base and dishonourable in 
Ministers not to advise his Majesty to confer some mark of Royal 
favour " upon so eminent a man ; and he expressed the hope 
that Hastings would receive an English peerage and the ribbon 
of the Bath ; but Mr. Pitt, though he assured the Major that he 
regarded Hastings as "a very great, and, indeed, a wonderful 
man," did not see how he could with propriety advise his 
Majesty to confer a peerage pending the refutation of the allega- 
tions that had been made against him in Parliament. Those 
allegations were refuted. Hastings then expected that he would 
receive the distinction which had been so long withheld ; and it 
is believed that he determined to select Daylesford as his title, 
and to continue to use " Mens cvqua in aniiiis " as his motto. 
He had no child on whom would devolve any hereditary honour 
bestowed upon himself; but he was not indifferent to the fact, 
that as peerages were conferred on his successors, it was invidious 
to exclude him from the benefit of what came to be regarded 
as the proper recognition of services in the office of Governor- 
General of India. It was remarked by Lord Cornwallis, when 
he received the Garter, to his son. Lord Brome, who was then at 
Elton, that "the reasonable object of ambition to a man is to 
have his name transmitted to posterity for eminent services 
rendered to his country and mankind," yet " no one enquires 
whether Hampden, Marlborough, Pelham,or Wolfe were Knights 
of the Garter." And the Prince Regent once facetiously asked 
his guests at a party at the Pavilion, when Francis was present : 
" What think you of Lord Shakespeare, Lord Milton, and Duke 
Dryden ? " But, without setting an inordinate value on rank, 



Hastings must have felt that, if his wish were gratified by his 
being created a peer, the crowning atonement would have been 
made to him for many undeserved wrongs. 

It was Hastings' lot to see his immediate successor, Earl 
Cornwallis, created a Marquis, in the peerage of Great Britain, 
and Knight of the Garter, for his services as Governor-General 
Then came Hastings' friend and subordinate, John Shore, who 
was appointed to the Supreme Council the year after Hastings' 
departure from India, and now, six years later, became 
Governor-General, and was at the same time created a Baronet. 


Five years more, and Sir John Shore was raised to the peerage 
of Ireland, as Baron Teignmouth. To him succeeded, in the 
following year, the Earl of Mornington, who was created Marquis 
Wellesley — also in the peerage of Ireland — and Knight of the 
Garter. Lord Cornwallis was then prevailed upon, against his 
better judgment, but in obedience to a lofty sense of public 
duty, to accept the risk of going out a second time, and he died 
in office, and statues in his honour were erected in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, London, and in Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay. To 
him succeeded Baron Minto, in the peerage of Great Britain, 
who was created Viscount Melgund and Earl of Minto, in the 
peerage of the United Kingdom, for his services in India. Then 


followed the Earl of Moira, in the peerage of Ireland, who, for 
his services in India, was created Viscount Loudoun, Earl of 
Rawdon, and Marquis of Hastings, in the peerage of the United 
Kingdom, Knight Grand Cross of the Bath, and Knight of the 

But not only were the five successors of Hastings in the 
Governor-Generalship advanced in rank in virtue of their ser- 
vices in that capacity, but conspicuous honours were also con- 
ferred during his lifetime on three Governors of Madras — Lord 
Macartney ; Robert, Lord Hobart ; and Edward, Lord Clive. 


The first-named had, by the force of his own abilities in the 
diplomatic service, been raised to the Irish peerage before he 
proceeded to India, where he served under Hastings, from 178 1 
to 1786, with so much credit to himself that the Court of 
Directors offered him the succession to the Governor-General- 
ship on Hastings' retirement. He declined the promotion, 
returned to England, and shortly afterwards was created Vis- 
count and Earl Macartney, in the peerage of Ireland, for his 
services in Madras and elsewhere ; and three years later — or in 
the year of Hastings' acquittal — Baron Macartney, in the peer- 
age of Great Britain, for his services in China. Robert, Lord 
Hobart, son of the third Earl of Buckinghamshire, was Governor 


of Madras from 1794 to 1798 ; and, on his return to England, 
was called up to the House of Lords in his father's lifetime, as 
Baron Hobart, which position he held until he succeeded to the 
earldom, on his father's death, in 1804. As for Edward, Lord 
Clive, in the peerage of Ireland — the son of Robert, Lord Clive, 
the hero of Plassey, who died in 1774 — he was, in 1784, created 
Baron Clive of Walcot, in the peerage of Great Britain ; he 
became Governor of Madras in 1798 ; and, on his return home 
in 1804, he was created Baron Powis of Powis Castle, Baron 
Herbert of Cherbury, Viscount Clive of Ludlow, and Earl of 


Powis, all in the peerage of the United Kingdom, partly on 
account of his services in India, and partly also because of his 
marriage with the sister and heiress of the last Earl of Powis of 
the family of Herbert. 

These numerous creations were calculated to set Hastings 
thinking that he had received less than his reasonable deserts . 
from the Crown, or that he had not been elevated to the social 
distinction which would have appropriately rewarded his 
services. This feeling peeps out in the letter, quoted on another 
page, to the Clerk in Chancery to the Chaptered Order of St. 
Joachim, dated 28th July, 1806, in which he alludes to his 


" present undignified condition of life,'.' and to his "acceptance 
of any title of honour from a foreign state " being liable to 
injurious constructions. The Prince of Wales professed to be 
desirous to serve him ; but years passed, and he did nothing ; so 
at length, in March, 1806, Hastings resolved to approach His 
Royal Highness on the subject. An interview was accorded 
him at Carlton House. 

Hastings recorded the following account of the interview in 
his diary ; — 


i^fh March. Thanks, &c. Since the great changes which have taken 
place in your administration of this country I have purposely forborne to 
intrude myself on your R.H.'s notice, fearing to appear importunate, and 
mistrustful of your R.H.'s remembrance of me. But it has been suggested 
to me that this caution, if extended too far, would render me liable to the 
imputation of disrespect by marking a seeming indifference to your R.H.'s 
gracious intentions towards me. Under this influence, but not quite satis- 
fied that I have done right in yielding to it, I have ventured to solicit the 
honour of presenting myself to your R.H. ; but claiming nothing and 
expecting nothing, till your R.H., in your own time, shall do me the honour 
to make me the subject of your direct and effectual consideration. 

To the Prince's question, " What were the specific objects that I looked 
to.?" I answered : " My first object has been employment (/>., as explained 
by his R.H. himself), either the Board of Control or Government of India'" ; 
but of this I now relinquished all thoughts — perhaps I ought not to have 
entertained them. My next view was to obtain a reparation from the House 


of Commons, for the injuries whicli I had sustained by their impeachment of 
me. Though acquitted, I yet stand l^randed on their records as a traitor to 
my country, and false to my trust. (This point I left unconcluded.) The 
third point principally regards the expectations which your R.H. yourself 
has excited in the breast of the person in the world, whose wishes I have 
ever preferred to my own. Though the best, the most amiable of women 
(the Prince said courteously, "She is so"), she is still a woman, and would 
prefer her participation in a title to any other benefit that could be bestowed 
upon me. (These last were not the words ; I have forgotten them.) The 


Prince cordially assenting, but (I thought) not as a thing to be done, but to 
be tried, said I must employ Lord Grenville and Lord Moira to effect it ; 
and, on my expressing a wish to owe the execution of it to Lord Moira, 
after some further discussion, he desired me to go immediately to his Lord- 
ship, and tell him that he desired me. The Prince took my hand, and pro- 
fessed his regard for me with so much fervour, that I could not help exclaim- 
ing impulsively : " Sir, I know not how it is, but I have never yet parted 
from your R.H. without added sentiments of gratitude and attachment." 

Hastings called upon Lord Moira immediately after he had 
taken leave of the Prince. Lord Moira was not at home. 
Hastings then wrote to Lord Moira " desiring to wait upon him 
at any appointed hour." Lord Moira immediately replied, and 


invited Hastings to call on the following day, which he did, 
when " I informed him," Hastings noted in his journal, " of my 
conversation with the Prince of Wales and my own expectations. 
He gave me the most cordial assurances, but pointed out the 
difficulties." On the 29th Hastings called again on Lord Moira, 
and entered the following account of the conversation that 
passed in the appendix of his journal: — 

29/// March. I expressed my regret and compunction for the part which 
I had been imperceptibly led to take in my conversations with his Lordship 


and the Prince of Wales on the 14th. When his R.H. drew from me the 
exposition of the specitic point which I wished to obtain, 1 thought only of 
receiving it from his unparticipated bounty. Nor had I any other con- 
ception during my subsequent conversation with your Lordship. I was 
indeed a little startled, and ought to have been awakened to a sense of the 
danger into which I was precipitating myself by an allusion to your Lordship. 
V'ou expressed a doubt whether some of the members of the Cabinet would 
be brought to give their assent to any public act in my favour which might 
imply a condemnation of their former behaviour towards me. It is evident 
that, as the concurrence of these is necessary, they cannot yield it even to 
his R.H.'s injunctions without a sacrifice of their sentiments respecting me, 
nor in short without conferring a favour on me, though yielding only to 
the request of his R.H. Notwithstanding this obvious conclusion, I still 
recurred to my first deception {sic), and thought no more of these persons 
than as the instrunients of his R.H.'s purpose, not of mine. Hut I now see 
my error. My Lord, I never will receive a favour without an acknowledg- 


ment, much less will I accept a favour from men who have done me great 
personal wrongs, though the act so construed should be the result of their 
submission to a different consideration. I beg, my Lord, that the affair 
may go no further. I am content to go down to the grave with the plain 
name of Warren Hastings, and should be made miserable by a title ob- 
tained by means which would sink me in my own estimation. 

(This is the substance and nearly, but not quite literal, of what I said.) 
His Lordship replied, that he perfectly conceived my feelings, but begged 
that I would not give up the point, but confide in him, and he promised 
that he would take care that nothing should pass that should reflect the 
smallest discredit on me, or wound my feelings, either in the way which I 
had mentioned, or in any other. 

In the conversation. Lord Moira interrupted me, and said, he did not 
know that these gentlemen retained their prejudices against me. He had 
only supposed it as an effect of the human passions ; they might cheerfully 
give their assent, which would be an indication that they no longer con- 
sidered me in the light they had done formerly. I answered that this made 
no difference. I should still in the case supposed accept an obligation from 
men who had grossly wronged me ; and in allusion to something more said 
by his Lordship, which I have forgotten, that the atonement ought to 
precede my acceptance of anything like a favour from them if in any case 
it could be justified. I expressed at parting my gratitude to him, for the 
sincerity of which he would give me credit, after the manner in which I 
had expressed my objection to acknowledgments made in which my heart 
did not participate. The whole discourse occupied about five minutes. 

The affair went no further," and Hastings may have re- 
gretted that he was so emphatic in his communication to Lord 
Moira. Seven years more passed, and public opinion, which 
had once regarded Hastings as a misdemeanant whom it would 
have been base flattery to call a statesman, underwent so great 
a reaction in his favour, that when, in 18 13, he was examined 
as a witness in connection with the renewal of the Charter of 
the East India Company, he was received with acclamation by 
the House of Commons and the House of Lords, and as he 
retired, the members rose and uncovered. He made these 
entries with reference to these incidents in his diary : — 

March 30M. I attend House of Commons at 4. Was called in about 
6, and underwent an examination of 3I hours. All the members on my 
dismission with heads uncovered. 

April ^th. I attend the Committee of the Lords. Was examined. Was 
allowed a chair. Not usual. On my departure the Lords all rose, as the 
Commons had done, with their hats off. The Duke of Gloucester called at 
i past II. Took me with him. Sat with me in the usher's room. Con- 


ducted me into Committee room, and left it with me, walking with me 
to his carriage, ordered it to re-convey me, which it did, to my door. He 
afterwards called to report my reception, and his own approbation of my 

Shortly afterwards the University of Oxford conferred upon 
him its degree of Doctor of Laws. The Prince Regent was 
then prompted to admit him to the Privy Council. On the 5th 
May, 1814, Hastings received a letter from Mr. James Buller, 
acquainting him, by desire of the Lord President, that a meeting 


of the Privy Council was to be held the following day at 
Carlton House, and requesting his attendance in order that he 
might be sworn in. " In the evening I received," he noted in 
his diary, " a similar command in the name of the Prince Regent 
from Lord Sidmouth, courteously expressed." On the following 
day : " At 3 I went to Carlton House, and was soon after called 
into the Council Chamber, took the oaths, kissed the Prince 
Regent's hand, was seated, and was dismissed, and departed. 
I was (long after) admitted to a private audience, and returned 
home a little before 6." In another part of his diary he stated 


that at the private audience he congratulated the Prince Regent 
on the wonderful turn of affairs " — consequent on the abdi- 
cation of the Emperor Napoleon during the immediately pre- 
ceding month. On the 9th May he wrote to the Earl of 
Liverpool, the Prime Minister, to whom, he was informed, he was 
indebted for the original proposition for his admission to the 
Council. He said that his sense of obligation was increased 
by the report that, " I was honoured with the suffrage of your 
judgment in my favour at a time — now far distant — when your 

opinion of such a person, and such a mind as your Lordship's 
was an essential support to my character." 

Hastings received, docketed, and preserved until his death the 
following copy of the text of the oath of a Privy Councillor 
which he took on being sworn in : — 

You shall swear to be a true and faithful Servant unto the King's 
Majesty as one of His Majesty's Privy Council. You shall not know, or 
understand of any manner of thing to be attempted, done, or spoken, against 
His Majesty's Person, Honour, Crown, or Dignity Royal, but you shall lett 
and withstand the same to be revealed to His Majesty Himself, or to such 



of His Privy Council as shall advertise His Majesty of the same. You shall 
in all things to be moved, treated, and debated in Council, faithfully and 
truly declare your Mind and Opinion accordingto Your Heart and Conscience, 
and shall keep secret all matters committed and revealed unto you, or that 
shall be treated of secretly in Council. And if any of the said Treaties, 
or Councils, shall touch any of the Counsellors, You shall not reveal it unto 
him, but shall keep the same until such Time as by the consent of His 
Majest)', or of the Council publication shall be made thereof. You shall 
to your uttermost bear Faith and Allegiance unto His Majesty, and shall 
assist and defend all Jurisdictions, Pre-eminences, and Authorities granted 
to His Majesty, and annexed to the Crown by Act of Parliament, or other- 
wise, against all Foreign Princes, Persons, Prelates, States, or Potentates. 
And, generally in all Things, you shall do as a faithful and true Servant 
ought to do to His Majesty. So help You God and the holy contents of 
this Book. 

In the following month, as has been stated on a former page, 
the Prince Regent presented Hastings at the Guildhall, London, 
to the Emperor of Russia and the King of Prussia. According 
to a memorandum in Hastings' diary, the Prince described 
him in English and F'rench to their Majesties "as the most 
deserving, and at the same time one of the worst used men 
in the Empire. I have made a beginning, and shall certainly 
not stop here. He has been created a Privy Councillor, which 
he is to regard as nothing more than an earnest of the esteem 
in which I hold him ; he shall yet be honoured as he deserves." 
But nothing further was done ; and, a few days before his death, 
Hastings said : " 1 wish the Prince, for his own sake, had 
abstained from making that display of his good intentions ; I 
was a Privy Councillor at the moment ; it was not worth while 
to speak of more, when more, as the event has shown, was not 

Like the great majority of Britons who. having lived a very 
active life as officials in India, return to their native land, and 
find themselves doomed to an inactivity that is uncongenial to 
their habits, Hastings would have been glad, notwithstanding 
the charm of Daylesford, of employment in England, suited to 
his experience and attainments, had it been offered to him ; but 
he was conscious that he lacked the interest to overcome the 
prejudice excited by his trial. Writing from Daylesford to Mr. 
Thompson, he remarked : To have governed the first and 


only valuable portion of the British Empire in India thirteen 
years ; to have received at my departure and since the fullest 
assurance of my carrying with me the regrets and affection of 
my fellow-servants and countrymen there ; and to find myself 
without interest with those whom I had successfully served, 
might have been a subject of mortifying reflection to a mind 
even less susceptible than my own " ; but it has had less 
influence on mine by my incessant care to preclude, or run 
away from it." In a later letter to the same friend, he said : 
" There is certainly some mysterious spell put upon me, for I 

cannot otherwise account for the utter neglect of me even by 
those who proclaim their belief of my past services, and sub- 
sequent retention of what talents I formerly possessed." 

Hastings was on intimate terms with half of the statesmen 
who formed the "Ministry of All the Talents" that came into 
office on the death of Pitt ; but the presence of Mr. Fox in the 
Cabinet, as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, probably 
hindered his friends from serving him. The Ministry being, 
as he said, " made up of discordant ingredients," and having 
" promised so much, performed so little, and undone so much," 
soon forfeited public confidence, and a " new perspective " was 



suggested by Mr. William Scott to Hastings, who said, in 
reply : — 

To the question which Lord Selkirk did me the honor to propose to 
you, and in which you express so partial an interest, which I feel very 
sensibly, I answer without hesitation, that in the event which you suppose, 
I should be most happy to participate in any way that would do me credit, 
by being rendered suitable to what remains of my capacity for official 
employment, for I would rather give my gratuitous services to Lord Sid- 
mouth than be the mercenary associate of any statesman now in being. 

Nothing, however, came of this proposition. 
On the 15th May, 1812, Hastings, who was then in his eightieth 
year, wrote the following letter to the Prince Regent : — 

Sir,— When the Kingdom is threatened with external dangers, and 
disturbed by internal convulsions, it becomes the duty of every loyal subject, 
be his condition of life what it may, to endeavour to contribute to its de- 
fence. To this principle I join an ardent desire to prove my personal zeal 
and attachment to your Royal Highness. I beg leave, therefore, most 
humbly, and, I hope, not improperly, to make an offering of my services 
thus directly to your Royal Highness, to be employed in any way which 
your Royal Highness may think it proper to command them. 

I have the honor, etc. 

The Prince Regent did not see his vv^ay to avail himself of 
this patriotic offer, which was Plastings' last attempt to obtain 



Warren Hastings possessed in an eminent degree the art of 
making friends, for he had many engaging characteristics, and 
he was habitually mindful of the little courtesies of life that 
have so much to do with the retention of friendship. He had 
borne himself with heroic dignity during the fiery trial in West- 
minster Hall ; and, according to Wraxall, he neither carried his 
" political vexations into the bosom of his family," nor mixed 
in society as a man suffering under unmerited ill treatment, 
but " as a youth on whom care never intruded." He preferred 
to dispense rather than to receive hospitality ; and his friends 
readily fell in with his partiality for his home, and its beautiful 
surroundings. He could never have been a dull, or uninterest- 
ing host, for he was full of sympathy for his guests ; he adapted 
himself with facility to their company; and he was "playful and 
gay." It might be hazardous to say who among his many 
intimate friends occupied the largest place in his regard ; but 
there is reason to suppose that long and close association con- 
ferred that position on Sir Elijah Impey. 

Impey was born at Hammersmith six months before Hastings 
saw the light at Churchill; and his father, an East Indian and 
South Sea merchant, who resided at Hammersmith, put him, at 
the age of seven, at the preparatory branch of Westminster 
School. In May, 1747 — as has been said on a former page — = 
Impey competed for election as a King's Scholar, and his name 
occupied the fourth place on the list of successful candidates. 
Hastings was removed prematurely from the school ; but Impey 
remained there for two years after his friend's departure for 
India, and he then proceeded to Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where, in due course, he took a good degree, and was elected a 


Fellow. In 1758 he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn ; in 
1766 he was appointed Recorder of Basingstoke; in 1768 he 
married a daughter of Sir John Reade, Bart; and in 1772 he was 
retained as counsel for the East India Company, and discharged 
his duties in that capacity with so much industry and skill, that, 
in the following year, when the Regulation Act for the better 
government of India was passed, he was, on the recommenda- 
tion of Sir Edward Thurlow, then Attorney-General — afterwards 
Lord Chancellor — appointed, at the age of forty-one, the first 


Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Calcutta. He left 
England at the same time as Francis, but in a different ship ; 
and for the rest of his life he had bitter cause to regret that 
Francis ever set foot in India. He remained in India only 
nine years, and was, during almost the whole of that time, 
regarded as the intimate friend, and by Francis as the tool of 
Hastings. It was he who tried and condemned Nuncomar for 
forgery, and sentenced him to be hung ; and he also tried 
Francis for adultery with Madame Grand — who subsequently 
married Talleyrand, to the disgust of Napoleon — and awarded 
her husband Rs 50,000 damages. Francis preceded him to 
England, and succeeded so well in playing on the imagination 


and prejudices of Burke and others as to bring about the recall 
of Impey in 1783. The impeachment of Hastings having been 
arranged, it was proposed to bring Impey also to trial ; and he 
was summoned before a Committee of the whole House of 
Commons to answer the allegations which Sir Gilbert Elliot, 
afterwards Earl of Minto, brought against him It was al- 
leged among other things that he had been, in effect, the 
agent and advocate of Hastings, and had pronounced a charge 
when he summed up the evidence on the Nuncomar trial, with 
the most gross and scandalous partiality, dwelling on all the 
points which appeared favourable to the prosecution, and either 
omitting altogether, or passing lightly over, such as were favour- 
able to the prisoner, and manifesting throughout the whole 
proceedings an evident wish and determined purpose to effect 
the ruin and death of the said Maharajah." ^ But he made a 
powerful speech in his defence, and satisfied the majority of 
the members of the Committee that it would be inexpedient 
to proceed with his impeachment. In 1789 he resigned his ap- 
pointment ; and, in the following year, he entered Parliament 
as member for New Romsey. He was mostly a silent member 
until 1796, when Parliament was dissolved, and he did not seek 
re-election. Though town-born and town-bred, he was fond of 
rural pursuits, and having purchased the estate of Newick, in 
Sussex, he found agreeable occupation in farming, as well as in 
travelling. He was a frequent, and a most welcome guest at 
Daylesford, where he could not have been at a loss for conver- 
sation with his host and hostess about old times, and mutual 
friends and enemies. 

Impey had five sons. The eldest, a Major in the 66th Foot, 
was killed in a duel with a brother officer of his regiment ; the 
second attained the rank of Admiral in the Navy ; and the 
remaining three were — like their father before them — elected 
King's Scholars at Westminster. 

Exactly forty years after Impey's death his memory was 
ruthlessly assailed by Macaulay, who was not only one of the 

^ Sir James Stephen, writing in 1885, when he was one of the Judges of 
the High Court of India, Queen's Bench Division, declared that "every 
word of this appears to me to be absolutely false and unfounded." 


greatest rhetoricians and historians of modern times, but also 
the most notable of the several able men who have filled 
the office of Legal Member of the Government of India. In 
this eminent censor's judgment Impey was nothing less than 
a vile man. "No other such judge," said Macaulay, "has dis- 
honoured the English ermine since Jefiferies drank himself to 
death in the Tower. . . . Impey, sitting as a judge, put a 
man unjustly to death, in order to serve a political purpose." 

The eldest of the trio of Impey's sons who were educated at 
Westminster sprang forward gallantly to the defence of his 
father's memory, and compiled an elaborate biography which 
did his heart, if not his literary skill much credit ; but he was 
not a David to slay the literary Goliath with a sling and a 
stone, and Impey remained under the gibbet of Macaulay's 
essay until 1885, when Sir James Stephen, who succeeded his 
friend Macaulay in the Law Membership of the Government of 
India, and had thence been raised to the bench of the High 
Court of England, published a masterly work,^ in which he 
expressed the conviction, " after the fullest consideration of 
the whole subject, and in particular of much evidence which 
Macaulay seems to me never to have seen," that the " dread- 
ful accusations " of the latter are "wholly unjust." 

It appeared to Sir James Stephen that Impey "owed his 
moral ruin " to a " literary murder," of which Macaulay " prob- 
ably thought but little w^hen he committed it " ; and that the 
essay on Hastings in which that murder was perpetrated, " was 
a mere effort of journalism hastily put together from most in- 
sufficient materials." For his own part he formed this estimate 
af Impey : — 

I have read everylhin"^ I could find throwing light on Impey's character, 
and it appears to me that he was neither much blacker nor much whiter, in 
whole or in part, than his neighbours. He seems to me to have resembled 
closely many other judges whom I have known. He was by no means a 
specially interesting person, and was in all ways a far smaller man than 
Hastings. He seems to have had an excellent education, both legal and 
general, to have been a man of remarkable energy and courage, and a great 

' The Sfory of Nuncomar and the ImpeacJuiient of Sir Elijah Impey, by 
Sir James Fitzjames Stephen, K.C.S.I., 1885. 



deal of rather common-place ability. I have read through all his letters 
and private papers, and I can discover in them no trace of corruption. 
Though he had a strong, avowed, and perfectly natural anxiety about his 
own interests, he seems to have had a considerable share of public spirit. 
He was obviously a zealous, warm-hearted man, much attached to his 
friends, but not the least likely to be a tool of, or subservient to any one, 
and certainly not to Hastings, with whom at one time he had a violent 
quarrel. There was nothing exceptionally great or good about him, but I 
see as little ground from his general character and behaviour to believe him 
guilty of the horrible crimes imputed to him as to suspect any of my own 
colleagues of such enormities. When his conduct in the different matters 
objected to is fully examined, I think it will appear that, if the whole of his 
conduct is not fully justified, he ought at least to be honourably acquitted of 
the tremendous charges which Macaulay has brought against him. 

Thus has Impey, in these latter days, been vindicated ; and 
thus has Macaulay been indicted as a literary murderer, by an 
eminent master of the law of evidence. 

Sir Elijah Impey died at Nevvick, on the ist October, 1809, 
after a month's illness, and was buried in the family vault of the 
old parish church of Hammersmith, which was within a few yards 
of Butterwick House,^ on the opposite side of the high road, 
where he was born. A memorial tablet was placed near his 
resting-place, bearing the following inscription : — • 

In the family vault beneath this chapel are deposited the remains of 
who closed his mortal career on the ist day of October, 1809, aged 77 years. 

He was distinguished through life by a superiority of nature and acquired 
talents, which elevated him to a station of primary rank and importance in 
the legal profession. On the establishment of the Supreme Court of Judica- 
ture over the British provinces in the East Indies, he was the first appointed 
to preside at that tribunal, a trust which he executed with integrity, and 
resigned with reputation. Besides those qualities which eminently marked 
his public life, he was endowed with a rectitude of principle, and a liberality 
of action which, added to the graces of a cultivated mind, constituted his 
character as a gentleman and a scholar, and which, combined with a peculiar 
tenderness of disposition in the nearer relations of society, rendered him 
while living beloved, and when dead lamented, as a kind master, a steadfast 
friend, an indulgent father, an affectionate husband. 
In pious remembrance of his virtues, and in sorrowful testimony of her 
attachment, this monument was erected by his affectionate widow. 

^ This house was at one time the residence of the Earl of Mulgrave and 


Lady Impey survived her husband nearly nine years ; she 
then died, and was also buried in the family vault. Another 
tablet was added to the left of the tablet of the Chief Justice, 
and the two tablets bear a resemblance to the tablets of Eliza- 
beth and Sir Philip Francis at Mortlake Church. The second 
tablet has the following inscription : — 

In the same vault, and close to his beloved remains, are deposited those of 


widow and relict of Sir Elijah Impey, Knt. 

To him she v/as a most faithful and affectionate wife, to their joint and 
numerous issue the tenderest of mothers. Pious to God, and benevolent to 
mankind, in reverence for relig^ion, in diffusion of charity, in meekness of 
spirit, in singleness of heart, she lived and died a true Christian. Born on 
the 2nd of March, 1749, deceased on the 20th of February, 1818. 

This tablet was erected in filial respect to her memory by her 
afiflicted offspring. 

The old church at Hammersmith was demolished about nine 
years ago, and replaced by the present fine building, and all 
trace of the Impey vault, which was filled up with concrete, has 
been lost. 

Sir John Hadley D'Oyly, 6th Baronet, and his two sons, Sir 
Charles D'Oyly, 7th Baronet, and Sir John Hadley D'Oyly, 8th 
Baronet — all of the Bengal Civil Service — were included among 
Hastings' most intimate friends during the best years of their 
lives. They were descended from William D'Oyly, M.P. for 
Norfolk, who was created a Baronet, in 1663, by King Charles 
II., for services rendered to the Royal cause previous to the 
Restoration. The first-mentioned Sir John Hadley D'Oyly 
was born in 1754 ; and, at the age of ten, he lost his father, the 
Rev. Sir Hadley D'Oyly, M.A., and succeeded to the title. 
The family had once been, but was not now in affluent cir- 
cumstances ; and Sir John was at first destined for the honour- 

Baron Butterwick, who died here in 1646. In 1666 it was purchased by the 
F'erne family, from whom it passed early last century into the possession of 
Mr. Elijah Impey (father of the Chief Justice), who died in 1750, leaving a 
considerable fortune. 




able, but not lucrative appointment of Page of Honour to the 
Royal Family, as the stepping-stone to other employment at 
the Court. It was hoped, however, by such friends as he had 
that if he were sent to India, he might succeed in repairing 
the fortunes of his family by giving a vigorous shake to the 
" pagoda tree " which still flourished in that land. Accordingly, 
at the early age of sixteen, with an imperfect education, and 
little knowledge of the world at large, he was shipped off to 
the far East. It must have been with no little regret that he 
turned his back on his native land, and set sail, not in a floating 
palace, served by steam and electricity, but in a little tub of a 
wooden ship, for the El Dorado beyond the seas to which social 
derelicts were too often banished. How he, and lads like him, 



contrived to kill time, and drive dull care away during the 
weary monotony of a six months' voyage by the Cape route, 
cannot be easily imagined by persons who go down to the sea 
in P. and O. ships, and have every luxurious want anticipated 
during the few days of their journey. 

But, whatever were his intellectual resources, and however 
ill-found his ship may have been in light literature and other 
means of amusement, he duly arrived in Calcutta, where, three 
years later, he made the acquaintance of Hastings, shortly after 
the latter had arrived from Madras, and assumed the office of 
Governor-General. Hastings always cherished a fellow-feeling 
for lads who reached Hindustan, as he himself had done, friend- 
less, and perchance forlorn ; and he promptly offered a cordial 
welcome to D'Oyly, and interested himself in his advance- 

It does not appear that D'Oyly was actually appointed to 
the service of the East India Company before he left home ; 
but in those good old days the public service of India was not 
a close preserve, enclosed by the barbed wire of regulations, and 
showing a sign-board bearing the strange device : " No outsiders 
need apply ! " as is now the case ; and gentlemen who succeeded 
in winning their way to positions of comparative eminence in 
India, had a way of thrusting friends and relatives into neat 
billets regardless of the periodical injunctions of their " honour- 
able masters," not to intercept the flow of the patronage of the 
India House. It was a far cry in those halcyon times from 
Leadenhall Street to Calcutta, and when there was the will little 
difficulty was experienced in discovering the way to serve a 
friend. Thus it was that Hastings succeeded in providing very 
comfortably for the young Baronet. D'Oyly had been caught 
young, and he took very readily to the life in India. He soon 
found that the lot of an official was not a hard one, and that 
there were abundant opportunities for making money during the 
intervals of official business. His most intimate and kindest 
friend " in Government House, Calcutta, aided him in mount- 
ing the official ladder, and eventually appointed him President 
of Moorshedabad. In 1780, after nine years' residence in India, 
and at the age of six-and-twenty, he married Diana Rochfort, 



widow of William Coles, of Calcutta, and niece of the ist Earl 
of Belvedere. Five years later— by which time he had been 
but little more than fourteen years in the country — he found 
himself possessed of what in those days was regarded as a 
" princely fortune." Thereupon he took leave of India, which 
had befriended him so handsomely in his need, and returned 
with Lady D'Oyly to his native land, where perhaps he had 
never been missed. 

Shortly after his arrival in England D'Oyly made a pious 
use of some of his fortune. His father had died in em- 
barrassed circumstances twenty-one years previously, leaving 
creditors in Suffolk who had long ago written off their claims 
against him in their books. Sir John D'Oyly diligently sought 
out these creditors, or their representativ-es, and paid their 
claims in full. The recipients of the windfall were not slow to 
appreciate the filial devotion and other virtues of the young 
" Nabob," who had suddenly appeared in their midst, intent on 
clearing the reputation of his father, whose existence they had 
almost forgotten ; and his conduct attracted so much favourable 
comment, that five years later he was urged to present himself 
as a candidate at the General Election for the suffrages of 
the free and independent electors of Ipswich. He seized this 
chance of entering public life ; and, after a hot contest, which, in 
the fashion of those days of bribery and corruption, involved 
a large outlay, he was triumphantly returned to St. Stephen's. 
It thus came to pass that he was a member of the House of 
Commons during the greater part of the trial of Hastings, and 
he did all in his power to help and console his old friend during 
the cruel ordeal to which he was subjected. At length Hastings 
was acquitted, and D'Oyly gave a grand entertainment in 
honour of the event, invitations to which were (according to the 
Annual Register) " sent by newspaper to Scotland and Ire- 
land." Hastings was very sensible of D'Oyly's goodness to 
him during his protracted adversity ; and, in token of his grati- 
tude, he presented him with a small oval box of black wood, 
mounted in silver, with a cornelian seal, which I have sketched 
on page 226, inserted on the lid. The seal bears an inscription 
in Persian, the interpretation of which is : This affliction has 


also passed away." On one side of the box is a silver plate on 
which these words are engraved : — 

This seal was 
Presented by the Right Honble. Warren Hastings 

Governor-General of India, 
to his devoted friend, Sir J. H. D'Oyly, Bart, M.P., 

in token of the unfailing support afforded him 
during his memorable trial by the House of Lords, 
which lasted seven years, and ended in an 
honourable acquittal, on the 23rd April, 1795. 

This interesting souvenir is now in the possession of General 
Sir Charles D'Oyly. 

In 1798 Hastings presented D'Oyly with a book, which I 
have failed to trace ; but I have found in Hastings' diary that 
he wrote the following inscription in it : — 

To my dear friend. Sir John H. D'Oyly, I give this book, in confidence 
that it will be preserved as a lasting deposit in his family, and that in the 
descendants of his line, which I fervently pray may be extended through 
endless generations, I shall never want an advocate warmed with some por- 
tion of the spirit and benevolence of their virtuous progenitor, should a 
name so humble as mine, but connected with one great public event, which 
must give it a fixed place in the annals of this kingdom, ever require it. 
London, 27th January, 1798. 

Sir John D'Oyly purchased" a large estate, near Lymington in 
Hampshire, called Newlands (now owned by Mr. Cornwallis 
West) ; and he acquired later on another estate, not far distant, 
which he named D'Oyly Park. He had a passion for bricks 
and mortar, and he loved to be his own architect in designing 
what he regarded as " improvements." He had little occasion 
to cultivate thrift in. India ; on the contrary, he acquired 
expensive habits during the most susceptible period of life, 
and unfortunately he brought these habits home with him. 
He was much given to hospitality, and being also generous to 
a fault, and fond of a large establishment, his fortune — which, 
regarded from tht^ standpoint of a century later, may not have 
been a colossal one — became seriously impaired ; and in 1797, 
when he was" on the point of sending his eldest son Charles 
to India, he began to think of resigning his expensive seat in 
Parliament, ..realizing his properties, and returning to Bengal. 



On the 1 2th April, 1797, he wrote a long letter^ from Newlands 
to Hastings, in the course of which he said : — • 

I plead guilty to tlie general charge of extravagance, but trust I can 
bring such pleas in palliation as to common minds might have excused a 
friend in treating it with somewhat less leniency. Thrown early in life into 
a society where even the name, much more the practice of economy was 
unknown, and where the means of profusion were unbounded, I adopted the 
habits of that society, and unfortunately, I allow, brought them with me to 
a country, the manners of which are as dissimilar as light from darkness. 
In this country I was placed with, if you please, a "princely" but unrealized 
fortune. At this period (indeed at what period is it not ?) a sensilDle, 
judicious friend, experienced in the ways of this country, would have been a 
treasure to me. I had none such. Such a friend, instead of arrogantly 
dictating to me, or proudly resenting the errors I naturally fell into, would 
have calmly reasoned with, and by every conciliatory mode have en- 
deavoured to set me right. I meant not (as you have stated) to exalt my- 
self above my equals, but to live in that state of life which I conceived my 
fortune entitled me to. I soon found I was mistaken in my calculations on 
this head, and that the expenses of this country much exceeded what I had 
imagined. I also felt the great disadvantage of leaving the most material 
part of my property in India, being thereby obhged then, and for many 
years afterwards, to live on ways and means, and I believe it is a known and 
undisputed fact that a person lives with more economy upon a certain fixed 
income than upon a fluctuating one. What was my conduct upon this 
discovery 1 An immediate determination to give up my house in town, and 
to live entirely in the country. This, at least, did not show that I was ob- 
stinately fixed in error, and although from an unfortunate passion for build- 
ings and improvements, added to the still remaining habits of extravagance 
acquired in India, and the unfortunate contest at Ipswich (for which at the 
time you condemn me you should recollect how many men, with much more 
experience, have fallen into the same error), this plan did not answer better 
than the former, yet a more candid judge might have made some allowance 

Hastings, in reply, urged D'Oyly to abandon the idea of an 
immediate return to India, and at the same time said that he 
did not approve of his " laboured apology for personal extrava- 
gance, which is the least of your faults, and would have been 
none had you committed no other." Six days later he wrote : — 

I repeat, that your domestic expenses since your return to England were 
at no time so great as to deserve the reproach of extravagance. I, there- 

^ This letter is included among the Hastings collection in the British 


fore, put the excess (as I believe many of your other friends have done) to 
the account of your liberality transgressing the bounds of discretion. 

Early in the following month D'Oyly asked Hastings to 
favour him with letters of introduction for his son Charles, 
who was Mrs. Hastings' godchild. He received the following 
reply, which Hastings copied into his diary : — 

I have been not a little embarrassed to answer your wishes with respect 
to recommendations for Charles. After twelve years' absence from Bengal 
have you any personal friends left there? I have none. With Sir J. Shore 
I have kept up a correspondence. To Chapman I have made a promise, or 
rather, a declaration, that I never would give anyone recommendations to 
him. A similar assurance I gave to the former, when he went abroad ; but 
having in two instances broken it, I should not forgive myself if I adhered 
to it on the present occasion. I have written to him in terms the most 
likely to ensure his friendship to your son, if he retains any for me. To 
Chapman I mentioned him in a letter written to hmi a month ago, which 
will be as effectual as one delivered to him in form by Charles himself, and 
its operation will be free from restraint. To Mr. Speke I have never before 
written ; but I am confident that my letter to him will be of service ; and 
he is a man whose good will, both on account of his rank, and the probity 
of his character, I should wish that Charles would cultivate. In my letter 
to Belli, I have desired him to take your son by the hand, and introduce 
him to the most respectable of his acquaintance. My letter to General 
Morgan is written in terms equally strong with the rest. In these I have 
gone to the utmost extent of my present acquaintance in Bengal, at least of 
such as I could write to for such a purpose. Mrs. Hastings desires me to 
express her regret that she cannot write ; for, excepting Mr. and Mrs. Chap- 
man, she literally knows nobody to whom her introduction could be of any 
use. Julius is not in that rank in the service which could enable him to 
offer more than the terms of equal acquaintance and friendship. To him 
Mrs. Hastings has written long ago to apprise him of the claim which 
Charles will have to both, as the son of two friends whom we both dearly 
love. She desires me to present her affectionate remembrance to yourself 
and Lady D'Oyly, and love to Charles, and I pray you to add mine. 

In February, 1798, Sir John D'Oyly remarked, in a letter to 
Hastings, that he had lately been prompted by the example of 
Sir Charles Reed, to devote part of every day to the superin- 
tendence of some of the studies of his daughters ; and he 
added : — 

Will you oblige me by pointing out such books as you would recom- 
mend them to study, so as to read and speak with propriety, together with a 
knowledge of geography that will fall under my department to teach them 



Hastings replied : — 

I am greatly delighted with your plan of superintending the education 
of your daughters. I had it once or twice on my mind to recommend it to 
you ; but I was not sure of the propriety of it, and therefore deferred rather 
than relinquished tlie design. I do not think myself qualified to give you 
a list of books suitable to the instruction of young ladies of their age, and 
I doubt whether such a collection, though it has been often called for, 
though it is so essentially necessary, and even promised (if I recollect 
right), either in the Guardian, or sonie other of Addison's periodical writ- 
ings, has never yet been formed. I will, however, mention such as I at 
present recollect, and think more immediately necessary. For history, 
Rollm, Verliot's Revolutions, Dr. Gillio's history of Greece, Fergusson's of 
the Roman Republic, Russell's ancient and modern history fan excellent 
work though written in the finical form of letters, and an abridgement), 
Hume's history of England, and Velly's of France. For poetry, Milton, 
Pope, Prior (to be read with your own selection), Parnell, Gay's fables. Gold- 
smith, and Gray — and (how came I to forget him ?) — all Shakespeare. For 
ethics, all Addison's Spectators, Guardians, and Tatlers, with the exclusion 
of all papers written in them by others, the Rambler, Adventurer, and 
Paley's Philosophy, also Aunt Kitty's Theology — pray do not forget that. 
For style and elegance of composition Molinoth's works, Mrs. Montague's 
observations on Voltaire's censure of Shakespeare, and Madame Sevigne's 
letters, I recommend that when they read, it should be aloud, and to you, 
and that you should read at least as much to them as they to you, both to 
give them a good tone, and accustom them to attention. I do not think a 
looking glass a bad assistant in this part of discipline, as a pleasing, but 
unaffected countenance adds infinitely to a graceful elocution, and young 
people fall naturally into the habit of contracting their brows, and setting 
their features to a form of constraint when they read. But enough of this. 
Your own better judgment will add to these crude surmises, and correct 
them, for they need it. 

In the year 1802, Sir John D'Oyly resigned his seat in Par- 
Hament, and he may have totalled up the expenditure that he 
had incurred during ten years in connection with it, and have 
arrived at the not unusual conclusion that " the game was not 
worth the candle." In 1803 his wife died. In the following 
year he placed his younger son under the care of Hastings and 
Henry Grant; and, accompanied by his two daughters, he carried 
out his project of returning to India, and re-entering the Civil 
Service of the East India Company. He was appointed Collec- 
tor of Calcutta and of the twenty-four Pegunnahs. Later on 
he became Postmaster-General and Senior Merchant on the 
Bengal Establishment. His second period of service in India 


extended, like his first, to about fourteen years. Unfortunately 
he did not achieve his object of returning to spend the residue 
of his days in his native land, for he died in Calcutta, in 1818, 
the year also of Hastings' death, aged sixty-four. An admirable 
portrait of him, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, is now in the possession 
of his grandson, General Sir Charles D'Oyly. According to Mr. 
W. D'Oyly Bailey's history of the D'Oyly family, — 

He was distinguished not only as a man of education, taste, and refine- 
ment, but as a sincere philanthropist. Were the objects of his benevolence, 
humanity, or pity, public or private, his exertions to do good were equally 
strenuous, while by his industry pnd integrity he restored the family from 
the ruined condition in which his predecessors had left it, and gained for it 
an importance and influence in the East Indies perhaps as valuable to it 
as its lost landed interest in England. 

Charles, his elder son, who succeeded him in the title, was 
born in India in I78i,and, after being educated in England, was 
admitted to the Civil Service of the East India Company, and 
returned to Bengal in 1797, at the age of sixteen. He was 
appointed Assistant Registrar of the Court of Appeal in Cal- 
cutta in 1798 ; Keeper of the Records in the Governor-General's 
office at Calcutta in 1803 5 Collector of Dacca in 1808; Col- 
lector of Customs and Town Duties in Calcutta in 1818 ; 
Opium Agent at Behar in 1821 ; Commercial Resident at Patna 
in 1831 ; and Senior Member of the Board of Customs, Salt, 
and Opium, and also of the Marine Board at Calcutta in 1833. 
He had put in nearly twenty-one years of service — less such 
leave as he may have taken, and which, under the indulgent 
old regulations, did not count as service — when his father, 
and official superior, died. He was a genial man ; and being 
wise enough to make the best of life in India, he was treated 
well by that sunny land of his birth. Having completed forty 
years' service, he took his well-earned pension, and returned to 
Europe. He was twice married ; but, as he had no family to 
educate and start in life, he was free to choose his place of 
residence ; and being endowed with a taste for fine art which he 
had successfully cultivated in India, he was led to take up his 
abode in Italy, where he spent the greater j^art of the seven 
remaining years of his life, and produced numerous drawings 



and paintings (now in the possession of his grand-nephew and 
namesake), that are remarkable for their atmospheric effects and 
high finish. Bishop Heber — one of Hastings' many champions 
— said of Charles D'Oyly, that he was the " best gentleman 
artist I ever met with." In 1845 D'Oyly died at Ardenza, near 
Leghorn, and was regretted by his former associates in India as 
a man who was "distinguished for benevolence and hospitality 
even in a country far-famed for those virtues." 

As an amateur artist of high merit Charles D'Oyly is chiefly 


remembered in connection with his admirable series of drawings 
entitled the " Antiquities of Dacca." On the nth May, 181 5, 
Hastings wrote to him as follows : — 

I was extremely gratified by the receipt of a letter from you yesterday, 
dated the loth of last October ; and avail myself of the friendly offer of Mr. 
Barwell, who is on the point of his departure on his return to India, to 
reply to it. I have another letter, if not two, yet unacknowledged ; for the 
natural infirmities incident to my time of life have pressed upon me during 
the course of the last year with a weight so disproportionate to their gradual 
progress, that it has become a painful employment to express my thoughts, 
sometimes on the most simple occasions, in the distrust of my natural 
powers. To this disability the recent financial regulations have contributed ; 
for I am not sure, that in their present incomplete state this letter may not 
render me liable to the penalties denounced on the breach of them ... I 


have received, and thank you for the beautiful drawings of the ruins of 
Dacca. They excel even those which you formerly presented to me. Give 
my love, and my dear Mrs. Hastings', who charges me with it, to your 
father, and our fervent wishes for the long continuance of his life, health, 
and happiness. With the same to you, and our added blessing, I am, my 
dearest Charles, your truly affectionate friend. 

Engravings from the drawings of Dacca to which Hastings 
referred in the above letter were published in four large folio 
parts by John Landseer,^ Engraver to the King. The first part 
appeared in the year 1814 ; the second in 1817 ; the third in 
1826 or 1827, and the last in 1827 or 1828. In each of three of 
the parts four large steel-plate engravings were given ; and the 
remaining part contained three plates. There were, consequently, 
twenty-three plates in all. The majority of them were engraved 
by John Landseer, but in the production of the others the aid of 
J. Scott, W. Finden, S. Middman, and G. Cook was enlisted. 
There were a few vignettes in the letterpress by G. Chinnery^ 
Each plate was "inscribed" or "dedicated" by Sir Charles 
D'Oyly to a friend. One of them was " most affectionately 
inscribed" to his father; another was " inscribed with the most 
grateful respect " to Warren Hastings ; a third was dedicated to 
the Countess of Loudoun and Moira ; a fourth to the Marquis of 
Hastings, K.G., G.C.B., Governor-General and Commander-in- 
Chief of India. Other plates were inscribed to Lady Mawbey, 
"in gratitude for her friendship to departed Excellence"; to 
Sir John Malcolm, Bart., G.C.B., Governor of Bombay ; to 
Edward Strachey, " late of Dacca, etc." The original drawings 
must have been executed with great taste and care ; and the 
enajravings are fine examples of an art that is threatened with 
early extinction by^ the combined agency of photography and 

Sir Charles D'Oyly also furnished the illustrations, drawn by 
himself on lithographic stone, for a book illustrative of the then 

' John Landseer died in 1852, aged eighty-three. He was the father and 
first instructor in art of Thonias Landseer, a clever engraver, who died in 
1880, aged eighty-five ; of Charles Landseer, R.A., who died in 1879, aged 
eighty ; and of Sir Edwin Landseer, R.A., the famous animal painter, who 
died in 1873, aged seventy-one. 



Neiv Road from CalciUta to Gya. The work was issued by the 
Asiatic Company's Press, Chowringhee, Calcutta. He also 
drew the landscapes, while Christopher Webb Smith depicted 
the birds in an illustrated monograph on the Feathered Game of 
Hindostan. He provided numerous coloured lithographs for 
a book published by Ackerman, in London in 1828, entitled 
l^om Raw the Griffin, and described as a " burlesque poem in 
twelve cantos" illustrative of the adventures of a cadet in the 
East India Company's service from the period of his quitting 
England to his obtaining a staff situation in India." The poem 
was written by "A Civilian," and is rather poor stuff. The 
sketches are humorous, and are suggestive of Rowlandson's 
illustrations of Dr. Syntax's famous journey in search of the 
picturesque. Better examples of Sir Charles D'Oyly's genius 
are to be found in the coloured plates of a volume entitled TJie 
European in India, which was published by Edward Orme, of 
Bond Street, London, in 18 13. 

Upon the death of Sir Charles D'Oyly the title passed to 
his brother, John Hadley, who was left in England in 1804, 
under the care of Hastings and Henry Grant, as has been related 
on a former page. On the 8th February, 1806, Hastings, being 
then in London, visited, as he noted in his diary, Mr. and Mrs. 
Grant, and "appointed to call upon them on Monday at quarter- 
past ten, to accompany them to Pentonville, to see Mr. Lendon 
and his school there." 

At half-past ten, I accompanied Mr. and Mrs. H. Grant to Mr. Lendon's, at 
6, Rodney Street, Pentonville, where we agreed to place John D'Oyly, and 
to carry him there on Friday. Terms, 80 gs. per annum, entrance 5 gs. to 
instruct him in English, Greek, Latin, and Geography ; Writing and Arith- 
metic, extra 5 gs. ; French and dancing (if taught) 5 gs each, with entrance. 

On the 14th— 

I went with Mrs. Grant and J. D'Oyly to Mr. Lendon's, paid 5 gs. 
entrance, and left the boy with him. 

That Hastings was not a merely nominal guardian of the lad 
is shown by the following extracts from a letter (which he 
copied into his diary) that he wrote at Daylesford, on the 14th 
October, 1807, to Sir John D'Oyly at Calcutta : — 



I think your son much improved. He passed his summer holidays at 
Daylesford. The first fortnight was granted as an extra grace, as the 
school did not break up till the end of the month, and I engaged to keep 
him to his daily exercises during that time, which I did ; nor was his 
vacation, which I think too long, unprofitably employed. Besides his tasks 
he went through the construction of B' and Ph' in Ovid, and got it com- 
pletely by heart. He is indeed much improved. He reads better than 
many grown men. ... I am thus minute in detailing his accomplish- 
ments because I hear through the medium of Airs. Patlock to Mrs. Motte, 
that you were displeased with his letters for their deficiency in neatness, 
grammar, and spelling. Recollect that his mind has been totally unculti- 
vated for two entire years ; that the arrears of intellectual progress at the 
age of eleven are not recoverable but by slow gradation ; and that when he 
wrote to you he could not have been more than half a year with Mr. Len- 
don. It is true that his handwriting is yet a bad one, and that his words 
are not so correctly put together as they should be ; but this is the case with 
all schoolboys, and of those especially who follow the discipline of West- 
minster School, where the English language is never taught. Yet I must 
say, that his letters to me are far from being ill-written. I have received 
one from him written on his return to school, with which I was much 
pleased, but you will hear from him yourself, and you should read his letters 
with the allowance due to the considerations which I have advanced. In 
addition let me inform you that your son possesses by nature, apparently 
improved by habit, an equality aud gentleness of temper, in which he can 
scarcely be exceeded ; and to these qualities he joins the attention and 
courtesy of a gentleman. He always went to his studies without reluctance, 
and without bidding, and much oftener reminded me of them, when his 
exercises were to be shown to me, or repeated by heart, than I had occasion 
to put him in mind of them. It was rarely that he had playfellows at 
Daylesford, but he was never at a loss for amusement ; busying himself 
with his own inventions, which were all of the taste and kind which used to 
occupy the mind of his brother when he was of the same age ; and in 
these he shows great ingenuity. You may trust me that this report is not 
partially delivered ; nor my judgment of him deceived ; nor do I mean that 
he is advanced so far in knowledge as another boy of equal natural parts 
would be at the same age who had prosecuted his studies in uninterrupted 
progression. He has yet a large arrear to bring up, and he will recover it. 

This is a remarkable letter for a childless man of seventy- 
five years of age to write about a lad, who was not a relation 
of his, to the anxious father in India. Forty-nine years had 
passed since Hastings was bereaved of his own little son ; but 
the parental instinct was strong within him ; and, notwith- 
standing his advanced age, he could enter as a father into the 
feelings of a father who was also a dear friend, and show at the 



same time that, so far from being bored by the presence of a 
boy at Daylesford during the hoHdays, he regarded him with 
affectionate interest for his father's and his own sake, and 
readily acted not only as a companion, but also as a tutor to 
him. The lad was destined by his father for the Civil Service 
of Bengal, and was in due course placed at Haileybury College,^ 
near Hertford, which had just been opened for the training of 
youths for the service of the East India Company. The Pro- 


fessors of the College were new to their work ; and the students 
included some lively spirits who regarded them as their natural 
enemies, and indulged in acts of insubordination which so 
offended the Court of Directors that it was resolved to make 

^ Previous to the year 1800 the lads who were sent out by the East India 
Company as Civil Servants were not required to undergo any special train- 
ing before they took up their appointments ; and probably their seniors in 
the Service on whom they were inflicted, " licked them into shape " without 
too tender a regard for their susceptibilities. The Marquis Wellesley then 
founded a Training College for Civil Servants at Calcutta. His scheme 
was not wholly approved by the Court of Directors ; and in 1804 a College 
was opened provisionally in Hertford Castle, near the town of Hertford, for 
Indian students. In 1805 the Haileybury estate, two miles from Hertford, 
was acquired by the East Indian Company for ^5,000 ; and College build- 


examples of the ringleaders by expelling them. Young D'Oyly 
had not aided, or abetted, the disturbance, but he had witnessed 
it, and seen who were the chief culprits. He was called upon to 
give up their names ; but this he declined to do, and he then 
wrote to Hastings as his guardian, and solicited his advice. 
Hastings wrote the following letter in reply, and made a copy of 
it in his diary : — 

i^th November^ 1811. I have received your letter, and read it with 
great sorrow. The reason which you assign for being present in the late 
riot does not satisfy me, and I much fear it will not exculpate you with those 
who are to decide on your conduct. If the Court is to meet on this day for 
the purpose of enquiring into the business, it will be of no avail to give you 
the advice which you desire ; and your own judgment, honour, and con- 
science will be your best advisers. But it is not a matter of advice ; 
for advice implies the right of choice, and you have none. But I will tell 
you what you ought to do, and knowing that you must do it, with a total 
disregard of all the consequences of it. This, then, is what you ought 
to do. 

If with a clear conscience you can say, " I was not privy to the design of 
the rebellion — I was not consenting to it, nor consulted upon it — I was 
in no wise concerned in it, that I was passively present, and the cause of 
my being so was that I was unable to sleep for the noise that was being 
made, and went out, certainly with no intention of joining in any act of 
mischief ; I neither fired a pistol, nor blew a horn, nor encouraged, or took 
part, by word or action in the riot which I saw passing " — say so, or say 
whatever variation from this may be the stricter truth. 

But accuse no one. If any questions are put to you, unless in such a 
way as the laws of your country require, concerning what others did, desire 
respectfully to decline the of¥ice of an informer ; if pressed, refuse it, and 
persevere in the refusal, even though dismission from the College shall be 
threatened to be the consequence. By the expression which I have used, 
of" such a way as the laws of your country may require," I mean your being 
put to your oath before a magistrate. In that case you will be compellable 
to answer, and, I need not add, to answer according to truth. But I do not 
suppose that that will, or can be legally done, unless a criminal information 
be laid against persons actually named, and a judicial process instituted 
upon it. 

ings were erected thereon, at a cost of ^^50,85 5, from designs by W. Wil- 
kins, of Caius College, Cambridge, the architect of the National Gallery, 
and of the fagade of the East India House, Leadenhall Street. The stu- 
dents moved into Haileybury College from Hertford Castle in 1809. See 
Memorials of Old Haileybury College^ London, Archibald Constable & Co., 



Young D'Oyly followed his guardian's advice, which, doubt- 
less, coincided with his own views of honour, and declined to 
inform against the chief participators in the riot, whereupon 
the Court of Directors resolved to punish his contumacy by 
inflicting upon him the disgrace of expulsion from the College, 
which involved his perpetual exclusion from official employment 
in India. Hastings noted in his diary : — 

2^rd November, i8ri. John D'Oyly dismissed from the College. 

24M {Sunday). I sent to J. D'y a draft of a letter to the Court of 
Directors, with a long letter of instructions to him, to send the letter or its 
substance immediately, to show it to Mr. Partington, and amend it with 
his advice, if it exceeds, or falls short of the truth ; and to Mr. G. Baring, 
if without delay, but peremptorily to write to-morrow. 

The following is the draft referred to : — 

Honorable Sirs, — I humbly beg leave to appeal to your honourable 
Court against a general sentence of dismission from your College, in which 
I am involved, on the ground of my refusal to give information against the 
ringleaders of the mutiny in the College, on the night of the instant. 

It would be disrespectful in me to vindicate an act to which your Court 
has attached the sense of criminality, but as it is considered in a very dif- 
ferent light by those with whom I have lived in society, and (as I am assured) 
by the bulk of mankind, so that if I were to purchase your forgiveness by 
affording that test of my obedience which you require, I should enter your 
service in the character of an informer ; I humbly hope that you will be 
pleased to relax of your severity for this sole offence, and allow me to lay 
before you my exculpation against the severer charge of rebelling against 
the authority of those whom your honorable Court has appointed to be our 
instructors, and of making an ungrateful return to your bounty in the insti- 
tution established for our benefit. 

In the first place, I declare upon my honor, that I was not a party to 
any design of that kind, nor privy to it before it took place ; that though 
I was present during the existence of the riot, my presence was purely 
accidental, and occasioned by my being deprived of my sleep by the noises 
which I heard, and more by my fear than curiosity to know what was 
passing ; and that I neither blew a horn, nor fired a pistol, nor did any other 
act by which I could be justly charged as an accomplice. 

In the second place, I beg leave also to appeal to the Masters and Pro- 
fessors of the College for my general conduct, which I am sure they will 
deliver in my favor, because I am conscious that I merit it. 

I have the honor to be with great respect, &c. 

The letter had the desired effect of inducing the Court of 
Directors to reconsider its hasty judgment, and, on the 31st 


January, Hastings had the satisfaction of recording in his 
diary : " Colonel Toone wrote : ' Young D'Oyly has permission 
to proceed to India, with loss of rank.' " On the 24th of the 
following month young D'Oyly arrived at Daylesford, stayed 
five days with his guardian and Mrs. Hastings, and then left. 
Shortly afterwards, or in the year 1812, he proceeded to India, 
where the episode at the College which nearly wrecked his 
prospects did not hinder his steady advancement in the 

He returned home in 1842, after a service of thirty years. 
He married twice, his first wife being a daughter of Mr. George 
Nesbit Thompson, Private Secretary to Hastings, while the 
latter was Governor-General of India ; and his second wife 
(born in 1795, the year of Hastings' acquittal) was a daughter 
of Mr. John Fendall, a member of the Supreme Council at 
Calcutta. He died in 1869, aged seventy-five; and his widow 
died in 1886, at the advanced age of ninety-one. He left two 
sons, the elder of whom, now General Sir Charles Walters 
D'Oyly, late Bengal Army, was for five years on the personal 
staff of Lord Dalhousie, Governor-General of India, and subse- 
quently served with distinction throughout the Indian Mutiny 
campaign. The younger son, Warren Hastings D'Oyly, retired 
lately from the Bengal Civil Service. It is worthy of remark 
that General Sir Charles D'Oyly has a genius for painting 
similar to that possessed by his uncle, the former Sir Charles 
D'Oyly ; and there is much reason to believe that had he 
adopted art, instead of arms, as his profession, he would have 
attained considerable eminence as an artist. It is gratifying 
to be able to add that time has not deprived his sword-hand 
of a skill in depicting the beautiful in Nature that must be 
almost unique in a General Officer of any army. 

Among the individuals for whom Hastings cherished an 
affection that did not cool as the years rolled by, a prominent 
position must be assigned to Mr. Nathaniel Brassey Halhed. 
This gentleman was at Harrow with Sheridan, whose acquaint- 
ance he dropped after the latter had shown his unbridled ran- 
cour against Hastings. From Harrow he proceeded to Oxford ; 
and, after a short residence at Christchurch, he accepted the 



offer of a vvritership in Bengal, to which was attached a small 
salary, coupled with the privilege of private trading. He 
arrived in Calcutta in 17^2, and in the following year he made 
the acquaintance of Hastings, who, as the first Governor- 
General, was the observed of all observers in the Anglo- 
Indian metropolis. He was much impressed by the character 
of his official chief ; and he was not slow in forming an admira- 
tion for him that he retained for nearly fifty years. Those 
were halcyon days for the enterprising official in India who 
had an eye to business ; and, young and inexperienced as 
Halhed was on his arrival, he turned to such good account 
the opportunity afforded him of shaking the pagoda tree, that, 
in the extraordinarily short period of six years, he amassed a 
competency. Little is known about his merits as a public 
functionary. The duties that devolved on a young official in 
his time were light, for law-makers and law-menders had not 
yet made a hunting-ground of India, and the natives were left 
severely to themselves, so long as they paid rent and taxes 
with punctuality, and kept the peace. But, if he was no more 
than an average servant of " John Company," Halhed was by 
instinct and cultivation a linguist. At Harrow and at Oxford 
he studied Greek and Latin to good purpose ; and in Bengal 
he took up with zest the study of Persian, Sanscrit, and 
local dialects. Being a man of simple tastes and moderate 
ambition, he determined, in 1778, to take his fortune to England, 
and remain there for the remainder of his life. Accordingly he 
returned home. 

But, either he discovered that it was more expensive to live 
comfortably in England than he, with his small experience, 
had imagined ; or England offered no scope for the exercise of 
his abilities; or he made injudicious investments that suggested 
to him the desirability of supplementing his capital ; for, after 
he had passed six more or less unprofitable years at home, 
he was induced to seek and obtain permission to return to 
Bengal in an official capacity. His re-appearance in Calcutta 
may have surprised some persons who had envied his good 
luck in being able to " cut the country," but he must have 
missed his revered friend in Government House. He settled 


down to the old life expecting to spend several more years in 
the protection of the Company's, and the promotion of his own 
interests ; but, within a year, the climate told so severely upon 
him that he found it necessary to take final leave of India, and 
to be content with such means as he had acquired. So, in 
1779, he was back again in London. 

Parliament was then almost the only avenue to distinction 
that was open to the retired Anglo-Indian ; and Halhed suc- 
ceeded in inducing the electors of Lymington, in Hampshire, 
to return him as their representative. It was not yet expected 
of a Member of Parliament that he should efface himself, and 
enact the part of an automaton ; so, as Halhed was a scrupulous 
man, who placed patrie before party, he voted not to order, but 
according to his conscience, without obtruding himself on the 
notice of the House. From time to time he published trans- 
lations from Persian and Sanscrit works which brought him into 
contact with a select class of learned men ; and he acquired 
familiarity with several modern languages ; but he was, for all 
his commercial experience in India, deficient in financial and 
political foresight ; and yielding to too sanguine a view of the 
prospects of France, he made such hazardous investments in 
the French funds that he lost ^30,000, which formed nearly the 
whole of his resources. His circumstances then became much 
straitened ; and he was compelled to grasp the helping hand 
of Hastings, which was readily held out to him. He did not, 
however, as borrowers have from time immemorial so often 
done, forfeit the friendship of the lender, for Hastings was un- 
remitting in his practical kindness to him, and continued to 
show him and Mrs. Halhed much hospitality both in London 
and at Daylesford. The high esteem which Halhed had long 
entertained for Hastings was now increased by a grateful recog- 
nition of him as a friend in need ; and he found expression 
for his ardent feelings in the occasional production of odes in 
his honour, which he presented to Hastings on his arrival at, 
or departure from London, and on other occasions. These 
friendly efforts to give him pleasure were much appreciated by 
Hastings, who, in one of his letters of acknowledgment, re- 
marked to the bard : " Praise from the heart is always pleasing, 



but when adorned with the brightest graces of poetry, and 
blended with philosophy (and that of a Reshee could not be 
better expressed than yours), it is most delightful." 

For several years Halhed endured with fortitude a hard 
struggle for existence ; for, being afflicted with the infirmity of 
deafness, he could not secure remunerative employment. The 
attitude of his mind is shown by the following lines of his : — 

I ask not life, I ask not fame, 

I ask not gold's deceitful store ; 
The charm of grandeur, wealth, and name, 

Thank Heaven ! are charms to me no more. 

To do Thy will, O God, I ask. 

By faith o'er life's rough sea to swim, 
With patience to work out my task, 

And leave the deep result to Him. 

Halhed was always mindful of the birthdays of " my dearly 
loved friend and patron," as he was wont to style Hastings. In 
1808, for example, when Hastings completed his seventy-fourth 
year, Halhed wrote : — 

On Hastings, then, ripe wisdom's meed we fix, 
From youth maturing up to seventy-six. 

And in a letter to Hastings he remarked: " Oh ! would it were 
seventy-six ten years hence ; but then I could hardly live to see 
what a divine old man you would make at eighty-six." He 
did, however, see Hastings at eighty-six. Eventually, Halhed 
obtained a well-paid Secretaryship in the India Office, and he 
promptly repaid the loans that Hastings had made to him.^ 

In April, 18 12, Hastings presented to Halhed a " bound book 
of testimonials" containing the following inscription, which he 
entered into his diary : — 

To Nathaniel Brassey Halhed, Esq., I present this book, and request 
his acceptance of it as a memorial (poor as it is) of the high estimation in 
which I hold the unchanged friendship which I have experienced from him 
through a long course of years, of mine for him, of my respect for his moral 
character, and my admiration of the versatility of his talents. 

^ I am indebted to Dr. J. Grant's article in the Calcutta Review, March, 
1856, on " Warren Hastings in Slippers," for most of the information that I 
have given about Halhed. 


Halhed died in 1830, aged eighty-four, having survived the 
" divine old man " twelve years. 

An equally amiable and constant, but much more distin- 
guished friend of Hastings was the Duke of Gloucester. This 
little-remembered Prince was the only son of William, Duke 
of Gloucester and Edinburgh, and Earl of Connaught, the third 
son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, father of George III. He 
was, therefore, a nephew of that monarch. His mother was 
Maria, daughter of Sir Edward W'alpole, K.B., and widow of 
James, Earl of Waldegrave. He was born at Rome, in 1776, 
the sixteenth year of the reign of his uncle, and was educated 
at Cambridge. He entered the Army as a Captain in the ist 
Foot Guards, and with the rank of Colonel, in his thirteenth 
year. In 1794, at the age of eighteen, he went on active service 
to Flanders ; and, having shown gallantry in the field, was 
appointed to the command of the 115th Regiment. In the 
following year he was promoted to Major-General, and was ap- 
pointed Colonel of the 6th Regiment. In 1799 he had com- 
mand of a brigade under his cousin, the Duke of York, and took 
a distinguished part in several engagements. In November of 
that year he was promoted to Lieutenant-General, he being 
then twenty-three years of age ; in 1808 he was advanced to 
General ; and in 18 16 he was gazetted Field Marshal. He suc- 
ceeded his father in 1805, and his allowance was then increased 
by Parliament to iT 14,000 a year. In 18 1 1 he was elected Chan- 
cellor of the University of Cambridge. He was created a 
Knight of the Garter in 18 14, and a Knight Grand Commander 
of the Bath and of the Hanoverian Order in 18 15. He was 
Governor of Portsmouth, Ranger of Bagshot Park, LL.D. and 

He married his cousin, Princess Mary, the fourth daughter of 
King George III. and Queen Charlotte. She was born in 1776, 
the year of the birth of the Duke, and cherished an attachment 
for him from an early age ; but, when each was one-and-twenty. 
Princess Charlotte, daughter of the Prince Regent and the 
Princess of Wales, was born, and " as it soon became understood 
that there would be no heir apparent if the Princess of Wales 
lived," as that lady was practically separated from her husband, 



"the necessity was admitted of keeping Prince William single, 
to marry Princess Charlotte, the presumptive heiress to the 
throne, in case of no eligible foreign Prince appearing for that 
function. For twenty of their best years, therefore, Prince 
William and Princess Mary were kept waiting" {Annual 
Register). But in 18 16 Princess Charlotte was united to 
Prince Leopold of Saxe Coburg ; and Prince William — now 
Duke of Gloucester — and the Princess Mary were allowed to 
marry. Each was now forty years of age, and the bride had 
lost the charm of youth ; yet, according to Lord Malmesbury, 
she was "all good humour and pleasantness"; her "man- 
ners are perfect"; and "I never saw or conversed with any 
Princess so exactly what she ought to be." They lived together 
happily and usefully for eighteen years. The Duke then died 
without issue; and the Duchess survived him twenty-three 
years, living in " much retirement, doing good when she could, 
and universally beloved." She died at Gloucester House, Park 
Lane, London, on the 20th April, 1857, aged eighty, being the 
last survivor of the fifteen children of George III. 

Hastings' intimacy with the Duke of Gloucester extended 
over many years, and it was marked by much courtesy and 
good feeling on both sides. On the 12th January, 1807, 
Hastings wrote to the Duke from Daylesford : — 

Sir, — I am infinitely obliged to your Royal Highness^ for the letter which 
you have done me the honor to write to me. For the portrait my thanks 
are due to your Royal Highness for your acceptance of it, and I am proud 
that you have thought it deserving of that distinction. 

Your Royal Highness has dignified me with the appellation of your 
friend, and given me credit for the sincerity which appertains to that re- 
lation. The pleasure which I received from this assurance is yet mingled 
with a sense of regret that I must continue to owe to your generous con- 
struction of my attachment that conviction which I should deem it the most 
fortunate circumstance of my life to be able to establish by proof. 

You have furnished me with the strongest inducement to visit London. 
My first object then will be to pay my respects to your Royal Highness. 

^ As the Duke's mother was not of Royal birth, he was given the title of 
Royal Highness in courtesy only previous to his marriage in 18 16, when it 
was definitely conferred upon him by his uncle and father-in-law, King 
George HI. 


Mrs. Hastings desires me to make her grateful acknowledgments for 
your remembrance of her, and to assure your Royal Highness of her re- 
spectful attachment. 

I have the honour to be, with very great respect, 

Your Royal Highness's most obedient friend and devoted servant. 

In September, 1807, the Duke sustained the loss of his 
mother, and Hastings offered his condolences, which the Duke 
promptly acknowledged. Hastings then wrote : — 

Sir, — I return your Royal Highness my grateful thanks for the honor 
of your letter, and for the gracious manner in which you have been pleased 
to signify your approval of my participation in your Royal Highness's 

Permit me, Sir, at the same time, to express my admiration of the just and 
truly religious sentiments which your letter conveys. These, aided by the 
lenient hand of time, will, I trust, soon tranquillise your mind, and leave 
only the fixed principle of affection, and the soothing remembrance of well 
acquitted duties. Sorrow so associated and attempered is the only tie that 
can connect our present existence with those whom we have loved and lost 
in this world, and is (may we not so hope ?) the pledge of our reunion in a 

I am grieved that any cause should have affected your Royal Highness's 
health ; and devoutly pray that the retirement which you have chosen may 
contribute to its speedy restoration, and to that of your Royal sister.^ 

Mrs. Hastings desires me to offer to your Royal Highness her dutiful 
respects and best wishes. 

I have the honour to be your Royal Highness's 

Faithfully devoted, and most humble servant. 

The Duke paid several visits to Hastings and his wife at 
Daylesford. The first of these was in October, 1809. He 
arrived at six in the evening of the loth, attended only by 
Captain Curry, his equerry. On the nth he rode, accompanied 
by Captain Curry, to Sesencot to make a call, and in the 
evening he was met at dinner at Daylesford by Sir Charles and 
Lady Cockerell, Mrs. Barton, Miss Rushout, and Mr. and Mrs. 
Leigh. On the 12th Hastings walked with the Duke round by 
Cornwell Knarefield, the garden, and park. Lord Redesdale, 
Sir John, Lady and Miss Read, and Mr. Penyston " dined with 
us." At eleven on the following morning the Duke left Dayles- 
ford. No mention is made of his having beguiled the time by 

' Princess Sophia of Gloucester, Ranger of Greenwich Park, who died 
unmarried in 1844. 



shooting. In the following February Hastings paid his usual 
visit to London, and waited upon the Duke, who promptly 
invited him to dinner, at which Hastings met the three mem- 
bers of the Duke's staff, Sir Francis and Lady Baring, Sir 
George Shee, Mr. Wombwell, and another gentleman, whose 
name he did not catch. The Duke " invited me," says Hastings, 
"to call on him on Sunday at a quarter before ii, to ac- 
company him to his church" (St. George's, Hanover Square), 
" to dine with him on Tuesday at 5, and to go afterwards to 
Covent Garden Theatre to his private box." Hastings fulfilled 


these engagements. This was the first of many occasions on 
which Hastings accompanied the Duke to the church referred 
to. Sometimes Hastings was indisposed, and the Duke im- 
mediately called to see and cheer his elderly friend. Occasion- 
ally the Duke himself was on the sick list, and then Hastings 
exhibited every solicitude for him. But Hastings did not pre 
sume on his intimacy with the Duke. He was a ceremonious 
man, with a deep respect for dignities, and he never forgot the 
Prince in the guest. This is well shown by the following letter 
which he addressed to the Duke on the 26th September, 181 1 : — 

Mrs. Hastings and myself are grateful for the honour that your Royal 



Highness has announced to us of your intention of being our guest on 
Thursday, the loth of October. The hour of dinner — as your Royal High- 
ness has with your accustomed goodness been pleased to allow us to fix 
it — will be 6 o'clock. I hope I shall not trespass too much on yolir Royal 
Highness's indulgence in expressing the wish, that in the arrangement of 
your future movements, you will extend the honour of this visit to as great 
a length as you can without inconvenience to yourself afford it. I shall 
obey your Royal Highness's commands in abstaining from my purpose of 
paying my personal respects to you at Cheltenham. For this purpose I 
had ordered horses to be in readiness for me to-morrow, and had intended 
to execute it yesterday, had not the severity of the weather prevented it. 
I am always glad to meet Captain Curry, and shall be happy to receive him, 
and any other person or persons whom your Royal Highness may bring 
with you. Mrs. Hastings charges me to present her respects, and to say 
everything that can attest her grateful sense of the very kind manner in 
which your Royal Highness has expressed your remembrance of her, and 
of your interesting enquiry concerning her health, which, I am happy to be 
able to announce, is perfectly re-established. 

The Duke " arrived to dinner" on the loth October, accom- 
panied as before by Captahi Curry, and was met by Mr. and 
Mrs. Penyston, and Mr. and Mrs. Beach. On the nth "our 
company was Mr. Bowles, Lady Northwick, and Sir Charles 
Cockerell." On the 12th the guests at dinner were Mr., Mrs., 
and Aliss Dawkins, and Mr., Mrs., and Miss Leigh. The 
following day was Sunday, and " we all went to church ; 
had the Adlestrop band. Marian's birthday. No company 
except Colonel Shaw, who arrived about noon, and staid." On 
the 14th Hastings accompanied the Duke to Northwick Park, 
and rode with him, and with Lord Northwick, Miss Rushout, 
and Mr. Bowles round the Park. He then took leave of the 
Duke, and returned to Daylesford. During the following 
twelve months he met the Duke frequently in London, called 
upon him, received his calls at Fenton's Hotel, Portugal Street, 
or elsewhere ; dined and walked with him, and accompanied 
him to church. In October, 18 12, the Duke paid his third 
autumnal visit to Daylesford, and Hastings invited the following 
ladies and gentlemen to meet him at dinner : " Lady Northwick, 
Miss Rushout, and Mr. Bowles, Sir Charles and Lady Cockerell 
for the 5th — five persons ; Lord and Lady Redesdale, Miss Mil- 
ford, Mr., Mrs., and Miss Talbot for the 6th — six persons ; Mr., 
Mrs., and Miss Dawkins, Mr. and Miss Penyston for the 7th-— five 



persons ; and Mr. and Mrs. C. Pole for the 8th — two persons." 
The Duke duly arrived ; gave, as usual, little trouble ; and was 
content with the society of his host and hostess and their 

In December, 1812, Hastings was in London, and he made 
these entries in his diary : — 

Portugal Street^ \fh Dec. At about 1 1 we left Daylesford. 

^th. The Duke of Gloucester called, and invited me to dine with him 
next Saturday. Promised to call to-morrow, and take me to church. 

dth. The Duke called, etc. I returned in his coach, which he left to 

<^th. I wrote my name at Princess Sophia's of Gloucester. We both 
dined with the Duke of Gloucester, and came home about i. Princess 
Sophia, Lady Wilymer, Lady Mary Wedderburn, Sir George and Lady 

\2th. I dined at the Duke of Gloucester's. Lord Sidmouth, Mr. Van 
Sittart, Mr. Cooper, Mr. Wilberforce, etc. 

13///. I accompanied H.R.H. to St. George's church, he calling for me. 
14//^. I went with H.R.H. to the Levee. 

\']th. My 80th birthday. The Duke of Gloucester came to congratulate 
me upon it. 

20th. I went with the Duke of Gloucester to St. George's church. 
i^th {Christmas Day). We both dined with the Duke of Gloucester, 
Princess Sophia, and his own household. 

Hastings was back in his old quarters in Portugal Street in 
the spring of 18 13. 

"^rd March. The Duke of Gloucester dined with us, and Lord and Lady 
Ellenborough, Mrs. Motte, Sir H. Inglis, Colonel Toone, Colonel Dalton, 
and Captain Curry. 

\']th March. I dined with the Duke of Gloucester, Bishops of Chester 
and Norwich, Law and Bathurst. 

5//^ April. I attended the Committee of the House of Lords. The Duke 
of Gloucester called at iij, took me with him, sat with me in the Usher's 
room, conducted me into the Committee Room, and left it with me, walking 
with me to his carriage, ordering it to reconvey me, which it did, to my 
door. He afterwards called, to report my reception, and his own approba- 
tion of my evidence. 

'^rd May. In consequence of a message from the Duke of Gloucester 
yesterday by Colonel Higgins, I wrote to Mr. Baber, Mr. Auriol, and Mr. 
Chamier, calling on the two last, requesting them to accommodate H.R.H. 
by voting to gravel Piccadilly and Park Lane instead of paving it. 

On the 15th July, 18 14, Hastings, who was again lodging in 


Portugal Street, called on the Duke of Gloucester, " who," 
he recorded, "engaged himself to us at Daylesford, the ist 
of October — condition, no other company. I was admitted 
to the presence of the Princess Sophia of Gloucester." Ac- 
cordingly, on Saturday, the ist October, the Duke arrived at 
Daylesford. On Sunday Hastings took his Royal guest to the 
little church near the park, but Mrs. Hastings remained at 
home, as she was indisposed. On Monday, in the afternoon, 
the Duke left for Sesencot, where he was joined the following 
day by Mr. and Mrs. Hastings. The party at Sesencot in- 
cluded Lord and Lady Redesdale, Lord and Lady Ducie, Lady 
Cockerell, Mr. and Mrs. Dutton. Mrs. Hastings returned home 
in the evening ; but Hastings remained two days at Sesencot, 
when he returned to Daylesford with the Duke, "who sat an 
hour with us, took leave, and proceeded to Stowe." 

2'jth June, 1816. I received a message by Colonel Higgins from the 
Duke of Gloucester to call upon him to-morrow between 12 and i. 

2^th Jujie. I waited on H.R.H. His marriage not fixed, but will take 
place between the 15th and 18th July. 

t^th February, 1817. I wrote my name at the Duke of Gloucester's at 
Carlton House. 

yth March. I dined with the Duke of Gloucester " to meet the Prince 
Regent"; presented to the Duchess. 

8/// March. I visited Princess Sophia of Gloucester, was admitted, the 
Duke came. At 4 we received a visit from the Duke. 

\2tk iMarch. We attended a numerous party at the Duke of Gloucester's. 

2^th March. Visit of H.R.H. the Duke of Gloucester. Last night the 
Duchess's party. 

i8//^ April. I called at Gloucester House, and was received by the Duke 
and Duchess in her Royal Highness's apartment. Mrs. H. and Lady Imhoff 
went to the Duchess's party. 

2\st April. I sent to H.R.H. the dimensions of his portrait. 

^th May. I wrote to H.R.H. announcing our departure, and praying an 
appointment to wait on him to-morrow. 

bth May. At 12, I called by appointment on the Duke of Gloucester, to 
take leave, who came at three for the same purpose. 

7//z June. I went to Cheltenham to pay my respects to the Duke of 
Gloucester, and returned the same day bringing with me Junius Idcntijied. 
lent by H.R.H. 

x-jth June. I returned the book lent by H.R.H. with a letter. 

On the 7th June Hastings wrote to the Duke, "accepting 
his intimation of a promise to come to Daylesford from 



Cheltenham." But a week afterwards, on account of the com- 
mencement of Hastings' last illness, Mrs. Hastings wrote an 
excuse, and the Duke never saw his old friend again. 

Hastings was always ready to give recommendations to men 
who had rendered good service as his subordinates in India. 
The following letter, written from Daylesford on the 26th April, 
1805, to one of them, is as courteous as it is considerate : — 

I beg you to believe, as I can with truth assure you. that my having so 
long delayed to answer your letter has not been owing to any indifference 
with respect to the subject of it, but to the reluctance which I felt to answer 
it in terms not adequate to the expectation which you had formed when you 
wrote it. With more leisure, and my mind less occupied than when I 
received your letter, I am sorry that I am unable to reply to your appeal by 
more than a general attestation of your merits and services, as they remain 
impressed on my memory, without the recollection of any specific acts 
which have contributed to produce it. Indeed, the nature of your official 
functions does not in itself admit of much specification, consisting only of 
promptness of attention, diligence in execution, and correctness and per- 
spicuity in composition. To your possession of these qualities I can con- 
scientiously give my testimony, though the degree in which I may have 
originally estimated them must have been somewhat effaced by a lapse of 
more than 21 years. I will add, that I retain as much of esteem for your 
private character as to suffer much regret that I can only offer this very 
imperfect effort to do you justice. 

He was also very courteous to young men of merit, and 
they were duly respectful to him. On one occasion he pre- 
sented a " sett of classics," as he described the collection in his 
diary, to a Mr. Frith ; and his gift was accompanied by the 
following letter, which he copied into his diary : — 

I request your acceptance of a selection of classical books, intended as a 
pledge of my regard for the son of an honoured and most esteemed friend. 
As such, I beg you to preserve them for my sake ; and, for your own, I 
earnestly recommend to you to make a perusal of them a part of your daily 
occupation, by allotting if it be but five minutes of every morning, to regular 
and connected study of any one of them ; until by your easy practice the 
Latin poetry shall be so familiar to you as to become an amusement. If 
you follow my advice the time will come, if it pleases God to grant you life, 
when you will feel a sense of obligation to me for having given it. I most 
sincerely pray for your health and success. 

But sometimes Hastings' good nature was over-taxed. For 
example, in September, 1807, a lady invited him in respectful 




terms to permit her to dedicate a forthcoming book of hers to 
him. He declined the compliment in the following letter : ^ — 

So much use, and so much more of abuse, has been made of my name, 
that I never see it in print, but with painful sensations ; and this renders 
me the more tender of obtruding it upon the pubHc on occasions not neces- 
sarily demanding it ; and, for a stronger reason, on any occasion which of 
itself might subject me to blame. I think I should deservedly expose 
myself to blame if I should directly authorise my name to be prefixed to 
a literary composition which I had never seen, in a character which, so 
placed, would imply a recommendation of it. But I have not only not seen 
your book, but (pardon me. Madam) I have only a faint conjecture that I 
recollect the name and person of the author. I think I do recollect both, 
and if I am right in that recollection, I am not sure that my vanity might 
have got the better of my discretion, and inspired me with a feeling of 
pleasure, if by chance I had met with such a distinction paid to me in it, 
without having been directly instrumental to it. But the question becomes 
very different when I was called to give my express authority for it ; or if I 
were in any way to predeclare my assent to it. 


{Presented by Warren Hastings to Sir John H. D^Oyly.) 

^ Historical MS. Commission, 6th Report. 



It was not until his eighty-second year that the health of 
Warren Hastings began to decline. He started in life with 
a very poor chance of becoming an octogenarian. His father 
was a reckless person, who is believed to have passed away 
at an early age ; his mother died a few days after giving him 
birth ; he was nurtured in infancy under harsh conditions ; he 
had few relatives to minister to his comfort, and safeguard his 
health during his youth ; he went out to India with an unformed 
constitution ; he spent fourteen consecutive years in the steamy 
plains of Bengal, without any change ; and, after four years in 
England, he served two and a half years in Madras, and thirteen 
more years in Bengal. Those thirteen years were years of al- 
most incessant worry and mental strain, yet his health never 
gave way seriously. He returned home at last, looking thin, 
bald, and delicate, but placid and strong notwithstanding ; and 
he kept his health during the long preparation for, as well as 
throughout the seven years' torture of his trial. He then retired 
to the country to rest, but not to rust. He did not fish, hunt, or 
shoot, but he was at no loss for congenial occupation in his 
library, garden, and farm. His had been a very chequered and 
stormy career, that would have killed many a man with a far 
finer physique than he could boast of ; but the sunset of his 
life was full of brightness and peace. He owed his longevity 
primarily to his temperate and regular habits. He had a good 
appetite, but he was a small eater, as he had a poor digestion ; 
he drank a little Madeira when he was in India, but he was 
a total abstainer by choice after his return to England ; he was 
always a good sleeper; and he took much, but not violent exer- 
cise. Moreover, he lived a full life, and having much ambition, 



fortitude, and self-reliance, he was braced up rather than de- 
pressed by opposition, and he was cheered by the belief that 
posterity would do him justice. Directl}' and indirectly, he 
owed much to his wife, Marian. His married life with her of 
forty-one years' duration was one lon^ honeymoon. ''Of the 
ingredients of happiness, which I once enumerated in rhyme," 
he wrote to a friend, " I possess all 'and the catalogue is pretty 
large; but one. . . . my beloved wife is what she was in 
her moral and spiritual substance, and I should and ought to 
be perfectly contented if her health was more stable." She 
thoroughly reciprocated his affection, sympathised with his 
joys and sorrows, identined herself with his pursuits, and 
watched carefully over his health with the devotion of a true 
helpmeet. In his eyes, as he wrote to her son when she was 
nearly sixty years of age, she continued " even in beauty to 
exceed every woman who comes within m\- observation ; and 
to the last he held her judgment, taste, and tact in the highest 
respect. She was, according to Miss Fann\- Burne\', "lively, 
oblig'ing, and entertaining, and so adored b\- her husband that 
in her sight and conversation he seems to find a recompense, 
adequate to all his vrishes, for the whole of his toils and long 
disturbances and labours.'" 

On the 14th January, 18 14, I was,'" he noted in his diary, 
*' seized about three with a total loss of articulation, and want 
of power in my ri'^ht hand for the first time." But he soon 
recovered. His health was variable durin:< the three followinj^ 
years. He suffered at times from toothache ; at other times 
from spasms and languor ; but for an octogenarian he was 
unusualK' active and hearty. He was periodically troubled by 
weakness of the eyes. In a memorandum he referred to " a 
sensation like that caused b\' a hard substance enclosed between 
the eyelid and the back of the e\'e, the left eye more affected 
than the right. I have suspected that this complaint has its seat 
in a cause as remote as the 23rd of August, 1782, originating 
in a very severe fever." In another memorandum, also without 
date, he noted that : " My eyes have always more or less been 
subject to inflammation, if their affection do not rather proceed 
from the lids, being a complaint similarly inherent to the 



maternal branch of my family. For some years past I have 
been in the daily habit of embrocating the adjacent parts with 
a lotion of zinc and elder-flower water, but without any certain 
conviction of its efficacy. ... In the autumn of 1784 1 was 
seized by a violent fever while 1 was in India, which hung upon 
me in a variety of forms during many subsequent years." He 
also mentioned that after this fever he was periodically subject 
to a swelling in both his legs ; and that on the 22nd of March, 
1800, while "in London, and at table, in a large company, but 
unperceived by any part of it," he was conscious of " a numb- 
ness and disability. It consisted in a partial deprivation of 
my powers of speech, and a torpid sensation in my right hand, 
frequently and variously recurring." He added that he was 
subject to these ominous sensations at irregular intervals, but 
" they seem to have totally left me for some years past." 

On the 1 8th January, 1818, he remarked, in a letter to a friend, 
that his mind was so worn, that it cannot be sure of spelling a 
word of four syllables without losing one of them by the way." 
The following entries in his diary have a melancholy interest : — 

Jan. 19M, 1 8 18. I have laboured for near a fortnight with an inflammation 
in the roof of my mouth, and inabiUty to eat solid food, and since last night 
with a violent cold. 

Feb. i()th. I visited Adlestrop and my neighbours, and returned by Day- 
lesford church, not apparently worse ; but after dinner my cough caused 
incessant irritation. 

March 6t/i. At 7 I arose, having passed the whole night almost without 

jtk. I have passed a second night without coughing. 

^tk. And a third, but my strength not advancing proportionately. 

April 20th. I took my first airing in the coach with no sensible effect. 
This is the thirtieth day since my confinement. 

May Zth. At 20 minutes past 8 Mrs. Hastings departed for London, the 
day overcast, but clearing ; her intention to make but one journey. About 
noon I walked round the garden, came in greatly fatigued. 

In a long letter to Mr. Halhed, he remarked : — 

I am much gratified by your approval of my decision to let Mrs. 
Hastings depart, and leave me behind. I have the conscious satisfaction 
of having throughout allowed a bias in favor of every wish and opinion 
of hers in preference to my own ; and, after the age of four-score, I believe 
it is the wisest resolution as well as the most virtuous that a man can come 


to. I almost regret her absence, as it deprives her of the new beauties of 
the spring, which is bursting upon us with all the arrears of delight which 
we have been so long neglecting. 

On the 29th he noted in his diary : — 

Mrs. H. still convalescent. Went to the party ot the Duchess of 
Gloucester, with Sir Charles and Lady Imhofif, and in her reception from 
the Princess, and a gracious remembrance of the Queen, found a pre- 
servative against all that her health would have suffered from such a trial. 

A/ay gf/i. The last week employed in arranging the library. My health 
equable, and rest good, generally to 5 ; my strength on a level floor good, 
ascending bad ; appetite from the ist, perfect ; memory variable. 

I2t/L My legs much swelled, the left most. Doctor prescribed the 
camphorated liniment 10 or 15 minutes morning and evening. Mrs. Hast- 
ings well, 

15M. I went to the farm and garden in the gig : my first airing. I 
suffered only and but little by a short walk in the kitchen garden. 

2is/. Heated, and my nerves shaken by walking. This is the third day 
that I have been affected with the confused sound of distant multitudes. 

22/id. I have been visited by confused and individual sensations as of 
the sounds of distant multitudes. I date their first perception from the 20th. 
At times resembling slow music. 

31s/. I went to church, and came home well, though a little exposed to 
the sun. 

/ime 2nd. Mrs. Hastings appointed to come to-day ; prevented by an 
invitation of the Prince Regent to the family, and waits to Thursday. 

^th. At past 9 Mrs. H. arrived, having waited half an hour at Oxford for 
horses ; proceeded with tired ones. She was neither heated nor fatigued. 

']th. I wrote to the Duke of Gloucester accepting his intimation of a 
promise to come to Daylesford from Ch'n. 

9///. His answer promising it for one day next month. 

On the same day he concluded a long and chatty letter to Mr. 
Halhed as follows : — 

You will rejoice to hear that my dear wife, after all that she had en- 
countered of tumult, parade, and festivity, and some sickness in London, 
with added inflammation, dust, and jaded horses in her departure from it, 
returned to her own comfortable abode in perfect health and gaiety of 
spirits, and found me as glad without going so far for it. 

Ten days later he resolved to go to London for advice about 
his eyes : — 

June i<^th. Since about a fortnight past my eyes have been much in- 
flamed, with a movable sensation of some internal irritation. Last night, 
near its close, I awoke with an acute heat in the eyelid. The left eye the 



immediate seat of the complaint. I formed the plan of going to-morrow to 
London, if not better, and wrote accordingly. 

20th. I slept well, and awoke free from any new pain, and relinquished 
my intention of going to London. 

July 13///. I took an airing after dinner in the coach with Mrs. Hastings ; 
in leaving it I was seized with staggering. I sent for Mr. Haynes, who 
took from me about 7 ozs. of blood. The bandage loosening, I lost much 
more. After the operation I slept a little, and awoke in great and universal 
agitation, which ceased on the second discharge of blood. 1 slept well, and 
awoke as usual, but with additional weakness. 

14//^. Mrs. Hastings wrote an excuse to the Duke of Gloucester, who was 
engaged to come on Thursday. 

lyth. I passed an unquiet night, and arose with my limbs weak and 

\()th. My health better, but strength much diminished. I sat in the 
great chair much of the middle of the night, and afterwards in the bed lay 
till late. 

20lh. I awoke with my throat much swelled, and a difficulty of swallow- 
ing at breakfast continued unabated at dinner, which I took alone, but 
without pain, and my appetite the same as it had been, unchanged through 
all other variations. ... I cannot recollect the loss of time, but ascribe 
the past events of the day to . . . 

This unfinished entry closed the diary that he had kept in 
eleven neat little volumes since the i8th January, 1784, the 
day before Mrs. Hastings left Calcutta for Europe. It is 
reasonable to assume that he had been in the habit of keeping 
a diary for many years previously ; but, if such was the case, 
the earlier volumes were not preserved. They might have 
proved of great value to the historian. 

He died at Daylesford on the 22nd August after six weeks' 
illness, surrounded by the nearest and dearest of his friends. He 
once reminded his wife, in a letter dated Lucknow, 13th August, 
1784, of how often she had " heard me declare in the most reso- 
lute terms that I never would be seen by you under the disgust- 
ing circumstances of a state of sickness "; and Gleig states in his 
memoir that, just before he expired, Hastings drew a cambric 
handkerchief over his face, and when those who were weeping 
near him found that he suffered it to remain there some time, 
and gently raised it, they found that he was dead. Thus, like 
Job, he " came to the grave in a full age, as a shock of corn 
Cometh in his season." He was buried near his mother, and 


among his ancestors, in a new vault, close to the chancel of 
the little church which he rebuilt ; and when that unassuming 
edifice gave place to the present handsome structure, care was 
taken to retain for the vault its original position. The tomb is 
marked by a pillar, crowned by an urn on which his two names 
— or his "conjoint appellative " as he styled it — are inscribed, 
and Mrs. Hastings placed within the church a plain tablet bear- 
ing the following inscription : — 

In a vault just beyond the Eastern extremity of this Church Hes the body 
of the Right Honourable Warren Hastings, of Daylesford House, in this 
parish, the first Governor-General of the British Territories in India, a 
member of His Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, LL.D., F.R.S., 
the last public effort of whose eminently virtuous and lengthened life was 
the re-erection of this sacred edifice, which he superintended with singular 
energy and interest to its completion, and in which, alas I the holy rites of 
sepulture were very shortly afterwards performed over his mortal remains. 
He died 22nd August, 1818, aged 85 years and 8 months. " Lord, now 
lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace." 

Hastings gave proof of his unbounded affection for, and con- 
fidence in his wife by his will, of which I have obtained a copy 
from Somerset House. It is dated the 27th of July, 181 1, or 
seven years before his death : — 

I, Warren Hastings, Esquire, late Governor-General of Fort William, in 
Bengal, being in my perfect and sound mind, do make and declare this to 
be my last Will and Testament. I give, devise, and bequeath unto my 
dear wife, Anna Maria Apollonia Hastings, all my estates both real and 
personal, all the debts which are or shall be due to me, and all my rights 
of property, to hold to her, her heirs, executors, administrators, and assigns, 
according to the nature of such estates, with power to give, devise, and 
bequeath the same to whomsoever she shall think proper. And I appoint 
her sole Executrix of this my Will, and hereby revoking all former Wills, I 
declare this alone to be my last Will and Testament. In testimony whereof 
I have hereunto set my hand and seal this twenty-seventh day of July, one 
thousand eight hundred and eleven. 

There were spots on his fame, but so splendid was that fame 
that it would, says Macaulay, " bear many spots," and his 
administration " gives him title to be considered as one of the 
most remarkable men in our history." He was responsible for 
abuses, but he " never had a share in the worst abuses " of those 
old times. He might easily have become enormously rich had 



he been guilty of cruelty or fraud ; but far more than Clive 
might he have been "surprised " in his retirement by his " mode- 
ration." He was " neither sordid nor rapacious." In a letter to 
the Editor of the Edinburgh Review^ Macaulay said : — I think 
Hastings, though far from faultless, one of the greatest men that 
England ever produced. He had pre-eminent talents for govern- 
ment, and great literary talents too ; fine taste, a princely spirit, 
and heroic equanimity in the midst of adversity and danger." 
Professor Wilson maintained that " there were defects, no doubt, 
but there were no great crimes and misdemeanours to justify his 
impeachment. . . . The safety and honour of British India 
were manifestly the motives of all his actions. Whether he was 
not at times less unrelenting than the occasion called for may 
admit of conjecture ; but undoubtedly the times were critical, 
great firmness was demanded, and its excess was a venial error, 
when its deficiency would have been an inexpiable crime." Sir 
James Stephen arrived at the conclusion that: — "If a man's 
ability is measured by a comparison between his means of action 
and the results of his action, Hastings must be regarded as the 
ablest Englishmen of the eighteenth century " ; and Colonel 
Malleson maintains that " no nobler son ever devoted to his 
country's interests a life more pure, a prescience more profound, 
talents more commanding than did " Warren Hastings. 

Hastings was not bred to public affairs. In the answer that 
he made to the indictment of the House of Commons he com- 
plained that a " state of perfection " was expected from " a man 
who was separated, while yet but a schoolboy, from his native 
country, and from every advantage of that instruction which 
might have better qualified him for the high offices and arduous 
situations which it became his lot to fill." He proceeded to say, 
and "with strict truth" so far as Sir James Stephen could 
judge :— 

Every division of official business which now exists in Bengal, with only 
such exceptions as have been occasioned by the changes of authority 
enacted from home, are of my formation. The establishment formed for 
the administration of the revenue, the institution of the courts of civil and 
criminal justice in Bengal and its immediate dependencies, the form of 
government established for the province of Benares, with all its dependent 
branches of revenue, commerce, judicature, and military defence ; the 


arrangements created for subsidy and defence of the province of Oude, 
every other poHtical connection and aUiance of the Government of Bengal, 
were created by me. 

" He owed," says Sir Alfred Lyall, nothing to the study of 
text books, nothing to accepted usage, official precedent, pro- 
fessional tradition," or the pressure of public opinion. He " had 
been shipped out to India a raw lad, and had been left to gather 
his experience among the extraordinary incidents of Anglo- 
Indian politics in their earliest, roughest, and most rudimentary 
stage." Burke characterised him as " a bad scribbler of absurd 
papers who could never put two sentences of sense together" ; 
and Macaulay alleged that " gentlemen in the Indian services 
write above their abilities," are "too much of essayists," and that 
Hastings "gave the character to Indian official writing which 
it now bears." But Francis, implacable foe though he was, 
admitted that there was no contending against the pen of 
Hastings, whose " power of making out a case, of perplexing 
what it was inconvenient that people should understand, and of 
setting in the clearest point of view whatever would bear the 
light, was incomparable." In the fragment of the autobiography 
to which I have already alluded, Hastings refers to himself as a 
man who had been placed by His will who governs all things 
in a situation to give birth to events that were connected with 
the incidents of nations ; which were invariably prosperous to 
those of his own ; but productive to himself of years of depression 
and persecution, and of the chances of want only relieved by 
occasional and surely providential means, though never affect- 
ing the durable state of his mental tranquillity." 

He inspired all classes in Bengal with confidence and attach- 
ment. He enjoyed a popularity among the natives " such as no 
other Governor has been able to attain." The Civil Service felt 
an affection for him that was constant through all his disasters ; 
and the Army revered him as a chief who was well worthy of 
support. He was considerate towards religious and race pre- 
judices, and he gave Bengal a peace such as it had not previously 
known. His temper was calm, and, according to Macaulay, 
*' equal to almost any trial. Quick and vigorous as his intellect 
was, the patience with which he endured the most cruel vexa- 



tions, till a remedy could be found, resembled the patience of 
stupidity. He seems to have been capable of bitter and long- 
enduring resentments ; yet his resentment so seldom hurried 
him into any blunder that it might be doubted whether what 
appeared to be revenge was anything but policy." He had 
" the full command of one of the most fertile minds that ever 
existed," and "no complication of perils and embarrassments 
could perplex him, but for every difficulty he had a contrivance 
ready " that " seldom failed to serve the purpose for which it 
was designed." In private life, according to the Annual Register 
of 18 18, "he is painted as the most amiable of human beings, 
with a nature 'full of the milk of human kindness,' and without 
a tincture of gall in its composition." 

The Gentleman's Magazine oi September, 18 18, contained a 
sketch of the life of Hastings by " One who knew him well," 
in which the author remarked : — 

Mr. Hastings possessed a mind which has been figuratively but truly said 
to have been cast in a heroic mould — noble, brave, generous, and sincere. 
It was equal to any occasion that called it into action ; no dangers appalled 
it ; no difficulties perplexed it ; by the dint of its own energies it surmounted 
them all whenever they arose. Ample proofs of this have been given in 
various instances during his long and arduous government, when dangers 
and difficulties pressed on every side, and when every mind but his was 
alarmed and confounded. But, on no occasion was his fortitude ever more 
severely tried than on that of his impeachment ; when, for seven tedious 
years he bore with unparalleled patience the grossest abuse, and the most 
malevolent invectives. An elevated mind, conscious of its own innocence, 
was his great support. It was not only a brazen wall to him, but a shield 
of virtue on which the shafts of malice fell harmless and impassive. The 
sentence of acquittal which the Lords passed afterwards did not redound 
more to his praise than did his enduring patience, his dignified comportment, 
and his undisturbed temper during the protracted trial. In private life he 
was one of the most amiable of human beings. He was the most tender 
and affectionate husband ; he was the kindest master ; he was the sincerest 
friend. He had "a tear for pity, and a hand open as day for melting 
charity"; his generosity was unbounded in desire, and did not always 
calculate on his means of indulging it. He had that true equanimity which 
elevated him above all selfish considerations or personal resentments. His 
own private interest was always lost in his regard for the public welfare, 
and to those who had been his most implacable enemies he was ever ready 
to be reconciled. 

Hastings was described by one lady as the " indulgent friend 




and parent of my life" ; and by another as a " sincere angelic 
friend " ; for he was blessed with a disposition that endeared 
him to all his friends, and enabled him to bear up under trials 
that would have crushed the spirit of an average man. 

There was an interval of thirty-three years between the date 
of Hastings' resignation of the Governor-Generalship and that 
of his death, and he consequently survived almost all his con- 
temporaries. But when he died, people were reminded of what 
he had been ; and five years after his death the Directors of 
the East India Company marked their respect for his character, 
and their gratitude for his services, by erecting a white marble 
statue of him by Flaxman within the precincts of their House.^ 
That famous head-centre of the administrative machinery of 
India, with its labyrinthine corridors, wainscoted rooms, wide 
staircases, and old-world air, disappeared soon after Parliament 
required the Company to resign its authority to the Crown ; 
and the statue was removed from Leadenhall Street to the new 
India Office in St. James's Park, where it now occupies a con- 
spicuous position in a hall close to the Secretary of State's rooms. 

^ It is remarked by Mr. William Foster, R.A., in his catalogue of the 
Paintings, Statues, and Prints, in the India Office, that : — " Hastings died on 
the 22nd August, 18 1 8. At a General Court held on the 22nd September 
in the following year, the Chairman of the Company notified his intention of 
moving that a statue of the deceased statesman be placed in the General 
Court Room. The motion did not come on, however, until the 12th January, 
1820, and then it met with some ungenerous opposition. But in the end the 
Chairman's proposition was declared carried, and it was formally resolved : — 
' That as the last testimony of approbation of the long, zealous, and successful 
services of the late Ri^ht Honourable Warren Hastings, in maintaining 
without diminution the British possessions in India against the combined 
efforts of European, Mahomedan, and Mahratta enemies, a statue of that 
distinguished servant of the East India Company be placed among the 
statesmen and heroes who have contributed in their several stations to the 
recovery, preservation, and security of the British power and authority in 
India.' Eight months later the Chairman informed the Court that John 
Flaxman had been chosen as the sculptor, and that the price agreed on was 
one thousand pounds. Flaxman seems to have worked upon it leisurely, 
for it was not until April, 1823, that he was able to report that the statue 
was completed. He was then permitted to send it to the Royal Academy of 
that year, and it must therefore have been the latter part of 1823 before the 
memorial was in position at the India House." 


It is surprising that the Directors did not raise a monument 
in Hastings' honour in Westminster Abbey, where, according 
to Trikell, who was buried in the Poets' Corner : — 

Along the walls the speaking marbles show 
What worthies form the hallow'd mould below ; 
Proud names who once the reins of empire held, 
In arms who triumph'd, or in arts excell'd ; 
Chiefs, graced with scars, and prodigal of blood : 
Stern patriots, who for sacred freedom stood ; 
Just men, by whom impartial laws were given ; 
And saints, who taught, and led the way to Heaven. 

A monument was erected in the Abbey by the Company in 
1758 to the memory of Admiral Watson, as a "grateful testi- 
mony of the signal advantages which they obtained by his 
valour and prudent conduct " in recovering Calcutta after the 
Black Hole catastrophe, in the immediately preceding year. 
Close to it is another large monument, that was erected by 
the Company to the memory of General Sir Eyre Coote, Com- 
mander-in-Chief in India, who repeatedly defeated the French 
and Hyder Ali in the Carnatic. In the nave is a monument 
that was erected by the Company in honour of General Stringer 
Lawrence, " in testimony of their gratitude for his eminent 
services in the command of the forces on the Coast of Coro- 
mandel." The Earl of Minto, Governor-General of India from 
1807 to 1 81 3, who pre-deceased Hastings, was buried in the 
Abbey ; and his brother, the Honourable Hugh Elliott, Governor 
of Madras from 18 14 to 1820, was placed some years later by 
his side. For Sir Archibald Campbell, Governor of Madras 
from 1786 to 1793, a resting-place was found in the Poets' 
Corner. In later years the Abbey received the remains of Sir 
John Malcolm, Governor of Bombay ; Sir Herbert Edwardes, 
the hero of Multan ; Earl Canning, and Lord Lawrence, Vice- 
roys of India ; Sir George Pollock, of Afghan fame ; Lord 
Clyde, and Sir James Outram, Cominanders-in-Chief in India, 
etc. The white marble statues of Lord Canning and Sir John 
Malcolm are among the finest in the Abbey ; and the monu- 
ments of some other eminent men who have been named 
attract attention. At St. Paul's Cathedral there are memorial 



statues of Middleton, the first Bishop of Calcutta ; of Heber, 
his immediate successor ; of Sir William Jones, Orientalist and 
Judge ; of the Marquis Cornwallis, twice Governor-General ; of 
Mountstuart Elphinstone, Governor of Bombay, and historian 
of early India ; of Sir Henry Lawrence, the hero of Lucknow ; 
of Sir Charles Napier, Commander-in-Chief in India ; and of 
General Robert Gillespie ; not to speak of the Duke of Welling- 
ton, the hero of Assaye and a hundred other battles. There 
are bronze statues of Lord Napier of Magdala, Lord Lawrence, 
Lord Clyde, and Sir George Pollock, in Waterloo Place ; of Sir 
Henry Havelock and Sir Charles Napier at Charing Cross ; of 
Sir James Outram and Sir Bartle Frere on the Thames Embank- 
ment ; of Lord Clive in the market place at Shrewsbury ; and 
of Lord Strathnairn at Knightsbridge ; but in death, as in life. 
Warren Hastings received less than his deserts as compared 
with the public recognition of the services of other men who 
once occupied high rank in India. 

As the Directors did not move in the matter, Mrs. Hastings 
charged herself with the duty of placing in the Abbey a memorial 
of her husband, consisting of a tablet surmounted by a bust. 
The tablet bears the following inscription : — 

Selected for his eminent talents and integrity, he was appointed by Parlia- 
ment, in 1773, the first Governor-General of India ; to which high office he 
was thrice re-appointed by the same authority. Presiding over the Indian 
Governments during thirteen years of a most eventful period, he restored 
the affairs of the East India Company, from the deepest distress, to the 
highest prosperity, and rescued their possessions from a combination of 
the most powerful enemies ever leagued against them. In the wisdom of 
his councils and the energy of his measures, he found unexhausted resources, 
and successfully sustained a long, varied, and multiplied war with France, 
Mysore, and the Mahratta States, whose power he humbled, and concluded 
an honourable peace ; for which, and for his distinguished services, he 
received the thanks of the East India Company, sanctioned by the Board 
of Control. The kingdom of Bengal, the seat of his Government, he ruled 
with a mild and equitable sway, preserved it from invasion, and, while he 
secured to its inhabitants the enjoyment of their customs, laws, and religion, 
and the blessings of peace, was rewarded by their affection and gratitude ; 
nor was he more distinguished by the higher qualities of a statesman and 
a patriot, than by the exercise of every Christian virtue. He lived for many 
years in dignified retirement, beloved and revered by all who knew him, 
at his seat of Daylesford, in the county of Worcester, where he died in 


peace in the 86th year of his age, August the 22nd, in the year of our 
Lord 18 18. 

Beneath the inscription it is stated that : — 

This memorial was erected by his beloved wife and disconsolate widow, 
M. A. Hastings. 

When the news of Hastings' death reached Calcutta a public 
meeting of the inhabitants was held, and it was resolved to 


request the Marquis of Hastings, then Governor- General, to 
allow a statue of his eminent predecessor to be erected in that 
city. The Marquis had, as Earl of Moira, been one of Hastings' 
judges ; and, after expressing his concurrence in the proposed 
tribute of public respect, he stated that he had been most 
punctual in his attendance at the trial of Hastings ; that he had 
conscientiously pronounced a verdict of acquittal ; and that all 
which he had learned since his arrival in India had testified to 
the justice of that finding. 



" Madame " Hastings, as she was called at Daylesford long 
before and after her decease, was in her seventy-first year when 
she lost her husband, yet she survived him nearly twenty 
years ; and there are a few old folk still living at Daylesford 
who cherish a personal and a grateful recollection of her. 
She completed her ninetieth year on the 2nd February, 1837 ; 
and on the 20th of the immediately following month she passed 
away. Her will, dated the 29th March, 1830, commenced with 
an expression of her devout thanks to the Almighty for granting 
her strength of mind to dispose of her affairs, and of her desire 
to be laid beside her beloved husband in the vault in Daylesford 
churchyard, from whence, she trusted, they would rise together 
to that blessed abode which God, in His infinite mercy, had 
promised to those who did His will. It directed that the burial 
was not to take place within ten days of her demise ; that it 
was to be conducted very privately ; and that no man was to 
be allowed to touch her body. It stated that she had deposited 
with her bankers £6,000 to pay off a mortgage raised by her 
husband on the estate.^ It proceeded to say that she left 13,900 

^ The total value of Hastings' estate was inconsiderable, for the mainten- 
ance of the position of a hospitable country gentleman entailed an expendi- 
ture which his income did not enable him to meet with facility. He never 
forgot that he had been Governor-General of India, and though it cannot be 
justly alleged that he affected a style of living that was extravagant, yet he 
appears to have thought that he could not without derogating from the 
dignity of that office, be as thrifty as he might otherwise like to be. He said 
to Lord Castlereagh, the Court of Directors, and others : — " My expenses 
are none of them such as deserve the character of extravagance, yet I cannot 
conform to that strict line of economy which another might, who possessed 
by inheritance an income of the same measure as mine, and had formed the 
habits of his whole life to it. This was not to be expected from a man who 
had passed all the active part of his life in the hourly discharge of public 
duties, which allowed him little leisure, or thought to attend to his own 
affairs, or to care about them. ' It must be admitted that he did not " cut 
his coat according to his cloth " ; but his establishment at Daylesford was 
always on a modest scale, judging from the enumeration of his servants in 
his diary, and he kept few horses and carriages. His periodical visits to 
London and his intimate association there with the best society of the day 
refreshed his mind and kept him in agreeable touch with the Court and with 
public affairs, but they added to his expenditure. He was moreover very 
generous to needy friends and relatives. But all the time he was almost 
wholly dependent on the liberality of the Court of Directors, and he was 



in Consols ; directed the distribution of this sum among her 
nieces and grand-nieces ; and ordered the payment of £i to 
each man, woman, and on behalf of each child on the estate. 
It gave her son, Sir Charles Imhoff, the free use of the house 
and estate during his life, with the rents and profits arising 
therefrom ; and it provided that, should he not care to reside 
at Daylesford, then the house was to be let exactly in the 
condition as to furniture in which it had been left by her 
husband and herself. It required her executors to sell the 
house and estate after her son's death, and to divide the pro- 
ceeds between her nieces, Mrs. Woodman and Miss Marian 
Chapuset, and her grand-nephew, Mr. W. H. Woodman. It 
apportioned the residue equally between these three relatives, 
another niece, and Lady Imhoff, and directed that, in the event 
of Lady Imhoffs death, her share should be divided equally 
among the other participators in the residue. 

Sir Charles Imhoff (who was appointed Lieutenant-Governor 
of Jersey in 1814, and was promoted to the rank of General in 
the British Army in 1846) attained the same age as his octo- 
genarian step- father, and survived his nonagenarian mother by 
sixteen years. He died at Daylesford on the 14th February, 
1853. By his will, dated the loth August, 1847, he left legacies 
amounting to ^22,500. He directed that, in the event of his 
dying in London, he was to be buried beside his wife — who pre- 
deceased him — in Kensal Green Cemetery ; but should he die at 
Daylesford, then his body was to be laid beside that of his mother 
in Daylesford churchyard. He bequeathed ;^i,ooo to his half- 
sister, the daughter of his father, Baron Imhoff, by his second 
wife ; and divided the rest of his property among his first and 
second cousins. A marble tablet in the church is — 

In memory of General Sir Charles Imhoff, K.J., who departed this life 
14th February, 1853, aged 86. According to his express desire he was 
interred by the side of his beloved Mother, Anna Maria Apollonia, relict 
of the Right Honourable Warren Hastings. 

He left no children, and the estate being offered for sale, 

confident that "your Honourable Court will not suffer me to descend to the 
grave with my last moments embittered with the prospective horrors of an 
insolvent debtor." 



under Mrs. Hastings' will, was purchased by Mr. R. N. Byass, 
by whom it was sold to Mr. Harman Grisewood, of Hill Street, 
Berkeley Square, London, who held it until his death in London 

NEW DAYLESFORD CHURCH. {Hastings' To7nb.) 

in 1870; and in 1873 it was acquired by Mr. C. E. Baring 
Young, son of a former partner in the firm of Baring Brothers. 
Mr. Grisewood marked his tenure of the property by adding to 
the embellishments of the house, and enhancing the beauty of 


the grounds, and also by rebuilding the few cottages forming 
the village, and by substituting a gem of a Gothic church for 
the unpretentious edifice which Hastings had caused to be 
erected. He had the last-named fact recorded in the following 
inscription on a tablet which was placed immediately under the 
tablet that Hastings erected in commemoration of the recon- 
struction of the old church : — 

This Church, which was rebuilt by the Right Honourable Warren Hast- 
ings, in the year of our Lord 1816, as is recorded in the foregoing inscrip- 
tion, having been found too small to accommodate the increasing number 
of the inhabitants of the parish, was taken down, and the present edihce 
erected on the same site by Harman Grisewood, Esq., in the year of our 
Lord i860. 

Mr. Grisewood was buried in the adjoining churchyard, which, 
with its closely mown grass, its beds of bright flowers, its well- 
arranged tombs, its neat walks, its yew and walnut trees, its 
ivy-clad walls, and its picturesque lych gate, does honour to the 
Rev. Arthur Grisewood, the present Rector, nephew of tlie late 
lord of the manor, and is a worthy resting-place of him who, in 
the words of Macaulay, was the " greatest man who ever bore 
the ancient and widely extended name " of Hastings. 



The late Sir George Scharf, K.C.B., the Director of the National 
Portrait Gallery, was so obliging as to draw up for me the 
following list of painted and engraved portraits of Warren 
Hastings : — 

Oil painting, when young, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, in the possession of 
Lady Northvvick. Engraved in 1774 by T. Watson. Wearing his own dark 
hair, seated at table cross-legged, nearly full length/ 

Oil painting by Tilly Kettle, in the National Portrait Gallery, to waist ; 
red coat, full face, left hand to cheek. Engraved by Angus. 

Oil painting, full length, life size, seated, by A. W. Devis, now in the 
National Portrait Gallery, formerly in Government House at Calcutta." 
Lent by the Secretary of State for India. Sprig-patterned waistcoat. A 
marble bust of Clive is seen behind in a circular niche on the wall. En- 
graved by Hudson. 

Oil painting, full length, standing figure, hands joined in front, dark 
buttoned coat, full face. In the Council Chamber at the India Office.^ 

^ A photogravure of the engraving, executed for this book by the Swan 
Electric Engraving Company, is given opposite p. 36. 

^ Macaulay refers to " the face pale and worn, but serene, on which was 
written as legibly as under the picture in the Council Chamber at Calcutta, 
' Me?is a-qica in ardiiis.^ " There is a copy of the picture both in the Council 
Chamber at Calcutta and in the Council Chamber at Madras. 

^ The painter is unknown. , The picture was bequeathed in 1800 to the 
East India Company by Mr. William Larkins, and it now hangs behind the 
chair of the Secretary of State. It is described as follows by Mr. William 
Foster, B.A., in his catalogue of paintings, statues, and prints, in the India 
Office : — "A full-length, life-sized portrait, painted evidently in later life, 
representing Hastings standing in an easy attitude, with hands clasped in 
front, and right leg slightly advanced. The face, close shaven, is turned 
partially towards the left ; but the dark eyes look directly at the spectator. 
The head, slightly bald, is fringed with silvery hair, fuller over the ears than 
elsewhere. The costume is very plain, consisting of a white cravat, dark 
double-breasted coat with gold buttons, black silk breeches, white stockings, 
and shoes with plain gold buckles." 




Oil painting by Masquerier ; holding a letter in the right hand and spec- 
tacles in the left. Presented in 181 5 by Sir Charles Forbes, Bart., to the 
Oriental Club, Hanover Square, London, Engraved by T. Watson.^ 

Oil painting by Sir William Beechey, R.A., kit-cat size, now in the posses- 
sion of General Sir Charles D'Oyly, at Blandford, Dorset. Engraved in 
1817 by W. Skelton. 

Oil painting, half-length, in a black coat, by Sir Thomas Lawrence, in the 
National Portrait Gallery. Painted in 181 1 for the wife of Colonel Barton, 
aide-de-camp to Warren Hastings. Inscribed with Hastings' name and age, 
79. Exhibited at the Royal Academy in 181 1, and at the Manchester Art 
Treasures, 1857, where it was attributed to Sir Joshua Reynolds. Engraved 
by W. Say in mezzotint.^ 


A picture in sprigged waistcoat, like the full length by Devis, was exhi- 
bited in 1879 by Colonel Davies at Burlington House, and was attributed to 

A picture on twilled canvas, probably by Abbot in the collection of Mr. 
Passmore Edwards, was sold at Christie's nth July, 1885. It had formerly 
belonged to Mrs. Plumer. 

A picture by G. Stubbs, an equestrian portrait, was sold at Christie's a few 
years back. 

Engraving (B.M.) by G. T. Stubbs, bust to left, in a hat. published 1795. 
Engraving, in Evans's Catalogue, " printed in colours." 

* An engraving of this picture appears on p. 164. 

^ A photogravure of this mezzotint, executed for this book by the Swan 
Electric Engraving Company, is given as a frontispiece. 



Engraving" (seen privately) after ZofFany, plain dress, white shirt front, 
cloven chin. Frontispiece to Memoirs Relative to State of India^ by Warren 
Hastings, published by John Murray, Fleet Street, 1786. 

Engraving (B.M.) after Ozias Humphry, arms folded. Engraved by 
(jreatbach, published by Bentley, 1841. 

Engraving (B.M.) after Zoffany, by Brittridge, published at Calcutta, 1784. 

Engraving (B.M.) in Jerdan's National Portrait Gallery. To the waist, 
nearly full face ; after Reynolds or Mathir Brown ; engraved by H. Robin- 
son, in stipple ; appears also in a re-issue of the work by Fisher, and text by 

Engraving (B.M.) after J. T. Seton, by J. Jones, in mezzotint. 
Engraving (B.M.), marble bust in niche, after T. Banks, by T. Gaugain, 
in stipple. 

Engraving (B M.), bust, to the left, after R. Fulton, by W. Nutter, in 
stipple, published 1801. 

Engraving, 8vo, in oval face, three-quarters to the right, published in 1795 
by Crosby. 

P'olio, within an oval resting on a square tablet, with his name, and a full 
length standing Hindoo figure on each side. Painted by Stothard, engraved 
in 1797 by Bromley. 

To this list should be added an admirable oil painting by 
L. J. Abbot, which was presented by Hastings to Mr. David 
Anderson, and is now in the possession of Miss Winter. It 
represents a very benevolent and tranquil face, with much ear- 
nestness of expression. Hastings was prompted by this picture 
to write the following lines at the expense of the managers of 
the trial : — 

A mouth extended fierce from ear to ear, 

With fangs like those which wolves and tigers wear ; 

Eyes whose dark orbs announce a sullen mood, 

A lust of rapine, and a thirst of blood — 

Such Hastings was, as by the Commons painted 

(Men shuddered as they look'd, and women fainted) 

When they display'd him to the vacant Throne, 

And bade the Peers the labour'd likeness own ; 

And such in all his attributes array'd 

Behold him here on Abbot's canvas spread ! 

'Tis true, to vulgar sense they lie conceal'd, 

To Burke, and men like Burke, alone reveal'd. 

They, their own hearts consulting, see him here 

In lines reflected from themselves appear ; 

With metaphysic eyes the picture scan. 

Pierce through the varnish, and detect the man. 



' ' To Burke it shows a soul with envy curst, 
Malignant, mean, and cruel when he durst ; 
To Sheridan, a foe to shame, untrue 
To every kindred tie, and social too ; 
To Fox, a shuffling knave, with false pretence ; 
•iMichael alone descried his want of sense ; 
And all in avarice agreed to find. 
Or make, the ruling passion of his mind. 
Yet he has friends ! and they^nay, strange to tell, 
His very wife, who ought to know him well. 
Whose daily sutT rings from the worst of men 
Should make her wish the wretch impeach'd'again — 
Believe him gentle, meek^ and kind of heart. 
O, Hastings, what a hypocrite thou art ! 

On the 22nd January, 1797, Mr. An'derson wrote from Edin- 
burgh to Hastings : — 

The present which you have sent me will afford me more real happiness 
than any gift that Fortune could bestow, ^o nine-tenths of the world a 
portrait of you, drawn from the life, would be highly valuable. What must 
it be' to one who can look back to twenty years of uninterrupted friendship, 
and who owes to your kindness much of the comfort I have enjoyed, and to 
your distinguished attention perhaps all the share of fame that I possess I I 
shall preserve it as a sacred memorial of our friendship, and transmit it to 
my descendants as an object of veneration and an incitement to virtue. 

The picture reached its ^destination safely, and Mr. Anderson 
wrote on the 3rd February : — 

Your picture is arrived, and I am delighted with it beyond expression. It 
is not only a fine painting, but, what is infinitely more valuable, it is the 
strongest resemblance I ever saw. I could almost imagine when I look at 
it that you were present, and speaking to me. Mrs. Sands and many of 
your friends have been here to see it, and every one admires it more than 
another. I do not know how to thank you sufficiently for this valuable 
portrait. Mrs. Anderson is almost as proud of it as I am. 

Several busts of Hastings were executed during his lifetime, 
including, according to Sir George Scharf, — 

Bronze bust by Thomas Banks, R.A., in the National Portrait Gallery ; 
bare neck, drapery round shoulders. Engraved by Conde, 1792. 

There is a copy of this bust, in plaster, at the India Office. 
In the year 1800 Major John Osborne, an "old Indian 
acquaintance," who was one of Hastings' guests on the day of 



his acquittal, and who, according to Mr. E. B. Impey, " was 
remarkable for his attachment to Mr. Hastings and my father," 
erected on his estate at Melchet, Wiltshire, a small temple, after 
the Hindu style of archit(fcture, for the reception of a bust of 
Hastings. The building was designed and built under the 
superintendence of Thomas Daniell, R.A. A bust rested on a 
pedestal surmounted by the sacred flower of the lotus, and bear- 
ing the following inscription : — 

it^ ^ .^^ ^ ^ 


Dedicated to the Genii of India, who from time to time assume material 
forms to protect its nations and its laws, particularly to the immortal 
Hastings, who in these our days has appeared the saviour of those regions 
to the British Empire. 

Major Osborne sent two copies of an engraving by Daniell 
of the temple to the Court of Directors, and requested that 
they might " have a fit place " in the Company's newly erected 
Library. The gift was accepted, and one of the engravings 
is now hung in the India Office. I am informed by the Rev. 
A. Gay, rector of Plastford, near Romsey, Hampshire, that " it 
is forty-five years since the temple was removed in consequence 
of continual robberies from it at midnight. For a time a few 
of the statuettes were to be seen knocking about the Park, but 
these were taken by one person after another, until all trace 
of them has disappeared." 


Anglo-Indian memorials in London, 238. 
Armorial bearings of Hastings, 25, and cover. 

Barwell, Richard, 42 ;. Francis' opinion of him, 76, 78 ; letter to Hastings 
about Francis, 80. . 

Burke, Edmund, estimation of Francis, 83, 84 ; denunciation of Hastings, 

108 ; chagrin and dying request, 114. 
Burney, Fanny, her opinion of Hastings, 47, 228. 

Caricatures, 125. 

Clavering, General Sir John, 72, 74. 

Coventry, the Earl of, poem by, 162 ; Hastings' supplementary lines, 163. 
Dallas, Sir Robert, his career, 103. 

Daylesford : incumbents, 4 ; purchase of estate by Hastings, 144 ; de- 
scription—house and furniture, 145, 147, 150, 151 ; church re-erected, 
153 ; the parish in 1801, 168 ; new church erected, 244. 

D'Oyly, Sir Charles : Hastings on letters of introduction, 204 ; career in 
India, 206 ; artistic genius, 207, 209. 

D'Oyly, General Sir Charles Walters : his career in India, and artistic 
genius, 214. 

D'Oyly, Sir John Hadley (the elder) : his career, 198 ; Hastings' estimation 

of him, 203 ; his justification, 203 ; letter from Hastings on his son 

John's progress, 210 ; his character, 206. 
D'Oyly, Sir John Hadley (the younger) : placed under the care of Hastings, 

202; his education, 209, 210; fracas at Haileybury, 212; Hastings' 

advice, his career, 214. 

Ellenborough, Lord : his career, 99, 100. 

Fox, Charles James : his estimation of Francis, 88 ; kind offices, 89. 

Francis, Sir Philip : his birth and education, 67 ; appointed to the Council 
of the Governor-General, 70 ; arrives at Calcutta, 74 ; demeanour 
towards Hastings, 75 ; his habits in India, 77, 78 ; duel with Hastings, 
79 ; returns to England, 80 ; pamphleteering, 81 ; Burke's indebted- 
ness to him, 83 ; enters Parliament, 84 ; proceedings against Hastings, 
84 ; distrusted by House of Commons, 86 ; criticism of Simpkin the 




Second, 87 ; Fox's opinion of him, 88 ; declines Governorship of the 
Cape, but accepts Knighthood of the Bath, 89 ; Prince Regent's 
friendliness, 90 ; the letters of Junius, 67, 68, 90, 91, 224 ; retires from 
Brooks' Club, 91 ; characteristics, 91, 93 ; death, 94 ; burial, 95 ; 
epitaph, 96 ; judgment of various writers, 97. 

Gloucester, the Duke of : birth and career, 218 ; marriage, 219 ; letters from 
Hastings, 219, 220 ; visits Daylesford, 220, 222 ; allusions to, in Hastings' 
diary, 223, 224. 

Haileybury College, 211 ; fracas at, 212. 

Halhed, Nathaniel Brassey : his career, 215 ; Hastings' appreciation of, 

217 ; letters to, 229, 230. 
Honours conferred on Governors-General and Governors, i8r. 
Humphrey, Ozias : his career, 50. 

Hastings, Sir Charles : President British Medical Association, 12. 
Hastings, Admiral Decimus, 11. 
Hastings, Howard, 13, 14. 

Hastings, the Marquis of : his opinion of Warren Hastings, 240. 
Hastings, Admiral Sir Thomas, 5. 

Hastings, Rev. Penyston (the elder). Rector of Daylesford, 13, 21, 155. 
Hastings, Rev. Penyston (the younger), 17, 18. 

Hastings, Warren : descent, i, 2 ; letter thereon, 3 ; baptismal certificate, 
18 ; birthplace, 20 ; early ambition, 21 ; at school at Newington, 23 ; 
transferred to Westminster vSchool, 23 ; King's Scholar, 28 ; school- 
fellows, 28 ; Warren Hastings cup, 29 ; autobiographical fragment, 30 ; 
Dr. NichoU's offer, 30 ; removal from school, 31 ; private instruction, 
31 ; application for writership, 32 ; arrival in Calcutta, 33 ; early career 
in India, 35 ; first marriage, 35 ; return to England, 35 ; acquaintance 
with Dr. Johnson, 36 ; inactivity, 37 ; appointed second in Council, 
Madras, 37 ; passenger per Duke of Grafton^ 38 ; appointed Governor 
of Bengal, 38 ; letters to supporters in England, 39, 40, 41 ; appointed 
first Governor-General, 32 ; his colleagues in Council, 42 ; letter to 
Lord North, 43 ; second marriage, 51 ; letters to his wife, 53, 55-61 ; 
resigns, 44 ; passenger per Barriiigton^ 44 ; reception at St. Helena, 
45 ; reception in England, 45 ; thanked for services, 47 ; settles at Old 
Windsor, 48 ; affection for Sir Charles Imhofif, 64 ; declines Order of 
St. Joachim, 65 ; his trial, 98 ; his counsel, 99 ; description by Miss 
Orlebar, 104; by Miss Frampton, 106; reply to his accusers, 112; 
managers of the trial thanked by Parliament, 113 ; sympathy of Cowper, 
115 ; criticisms of Simpkin the Second, 116 ; conclusion of trial, 117 ; 
acquittal, 119; address from officers of Bengal Army, 120; harsh 
decision of Pitt, 121 ; appeal to and action of Court of Directors, 123 ; 
caricatures, 125 ; Park Lane House, 137 ; purchase of estate at Dayles- 
ford, 144 ; builds house thereon, 145 ; his furniture, 147 ; pictures and 
books, 151 ; re-erects church, 153 ; amusements, 155 ; poetry, 155 ; his 
hospitality, 166; elected Fellow of the Royal Society, 167 ; excursions, 



170; tour in Scotland, 171 ; at Oxford, 174; at Guildhall banquet, 
176 ; presented to Allied Sovereigns, 176 ; presides at banquet to the 
Duke of Wellington, 177 ; honours withheld, 181 ; interview with the 
Prince Regent, 184 ; with Lord Moira, 186 ; respect shown by Houses 
of Parliament, 187 ; receives Oxford degree of D.C.L., 188 ; admitted 
to the Privy Council, 188 ; disappointed by the Prince Regent, 190 ; 
desire for employment, 192 ; friendship with Sir Elijah Impey, 192 ; 
with Sir John H. D'Oyly, 193 ; letter about introductions for Charles 
D'Oyly, 204 ; opinion on the education of girls, 205 ; acknowledgment 
of sketches of Dacca, 207 ; letter about educational progress of John 
H. D'Oyly the younger ; letter about fracas at Haileybury College, 
212 ; friendship with N, B. Halhed, 214 ; with the Duke of Gloucester, 
219 ; letters to the Duke, 219, 220, 222 ; the Duke at Daylesford, 220, 
221 ; allusions to, in diary, 223, 224 ; recommendations of subordinates, 
225 ; courtesy to young men, 225 ; a dedication declined, 226 ; equable 
health, 227 ; ominous symptoms, 228 ; health declining, 229, 230 ; last 
entries in diary and his death, 231 ; memorial tablet, Daylesford, 232 ; 
his will, 232 ; opinions of Macaulay, Wilson, Stephen, Malleson, Lyall, 
and Francis, 232, 233, 234 ; and of the Annual Register and Gentle- 
man's Magazine^ 235 ; Court of Directors erect statue in his honour, 
237 ; widow places memorial tablet in Westminster Abbey, 239 ; statue 
erected at Calcutta, 240 ; his estate and expenditure, 241 ; portraits and 
other memorials, 245 ; poetical description of himself, 247 ; the temple 
at Melchet, 249. 

Hastings, Mrs. : marriage with Baron Imhofif, 48 ; divorced, 51 ; marriage 
with Hastings, 51 ; opinions of her, 53 ; Hastings' letters to her, 53, 
55-61 ; leaves for England, 54 ; reception at Court, 62, 63 ; Fanny 
Burney's regard for her, 63, 228 ; Hastings' devotion, 228 ; he leaves 
everything to her, 232 ; her memorials to him at Daylesford, 232, and 
at Westminster Abbey, 239 ; her death and will, 241. 

Hastings, the Rev. Warren, of Churchill, 8. 

Imhoff, Baron : his family, 49 ; divorce and re-marriage, 51. 

Imhoff, Colonel Sir Charles : birth, 49 ; taken to India, 50 ; friendship of 
Queen Charlotte, 63 ; Hastings' regard for him, 64 ; elected Knight 
Commander of St. Joachim, 65 ; death, 242. 

Impey, Sir Elijah : at Westminster School, 28, 29 ; career, 192 ; vindica- 
tion, 196 ; death and epitaph, 197. 

Impey, Lady : friendship with Mrs. Hastings, 53 ; death and epitaph, 198. 

Johnson, Richard, the banker, 140. • 
Johnson, Dr. Samuel, acquaintance with Hastings, 36. 
Junius, the letters of, 67, 68, 90, 91, 224. 

Macaulay, Lord : his delusive rhetoric, 34 ; opinion of Hastings, 232. 
Malleson, Colonel G. B. : his Life of Warren Hastings^ 35 ; opinion of 
Hastings, 233. 



Napoleon, the Emperor : Admiral Sir Thomas Hastings' account of his 
voyage to and reception at Elba, 6. 

Pitt, William : his attitude towards Hastings, 121, 122. 
Plumer, Sir Thomas : his career, loi. 

Regent, the Prince : friendliness to Francis, 89 ; professions to Hastings, 
90, 176, 184, 188, 190. 

Sheridan, Richard Brinsley : denunciation of Hastings, in ; the latter's 

abiding resentment, 112. 
Stephen, Sir James : his Story of Nimeojimr^ 34 ; vindication of Impey, 

195, 196 ; opinion of Hastings, 233. 
Strachey, Sir John : his Hasiijigs and the Rohilla War, 34. 

Warren, the family of, 19. 

Wellington, the Duke of : Hastings presides at banquet to, 177. 
Westminster School, 23, 

butler & Tanner, The Sclwood Printing Works, Fromc, and London